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Scientific name:


IAWA Hardwood List

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 1: Distinct
 2: Indistinct or absent
 3: Ring-porous
 4: Semi-ring-porous
 5: Diffuse-porous
Vessel arrangement
 6: Tangential bands
 7: Diagonal and/or radial pattern
 8: Dendritic pattern
Vessel groupings
 9: Exclusively solitary
 10: Radial multiples of 4 or more common
 11: Clusters common
Solitary vessel outline
 12: Angular
Perforation plates
 13: Simple perforation plates
 14: Scalariform perforation plates
 15:   ≦10 bars
 16:   10-20 bars
 17:   20-40 bars
 18:   ≧ 40 bars
 19: Multiple perforation plates (reticulate, foraminate, etc)
Intervessel pits: arrangement
 20: Scalariform
 21: Opposite
 22: Alternate
 23: Shape of alternate pits polygonal
Intervessel pit size (alternate and opposite)
 24: Minute ≦4μm
 25: Small 4-7μm
 26: Medium 7-10μm
 27: Large ≧10μm
Vestured pits
 29: Vestured pits
Vessel-ray pitting
 30: Distinct borders;similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell
 31: Much reduced borders to apparently simple:pits rounded or angular
 32: Much reduced borders to apparently simple:pits horizontal (scalariform, gash-like) to vertical (palisade
 33: Two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell
 34: Unilaterally compound and coarse (over 10 μm)
 35: Restricted to marginal rows
Helical thickenings
 36: Present in vessel elements
 37: Throughout body of vessel element
 38: Only in vessel element tails
 39: Only in narrower vessel elements
Tangential diameter of vessel lumina
 40: ≦50μm
 41: 50-100μm
 42: 100-200μm
 43: ≧200μm
 45: Two distinct diameter classes, wood not ring-porous
Vessels per square millimetre
 46: ≦5
 47: 5-20
 48: 20-40
 49: 40-100
 50: ≧100
Mean vessel element length
 52: ≦350μm
 53: 350-800μm
 54: ≧800μm
Tyloses and deposits in vessels
 56: Tyloses common
 57: Tyloses sclerotic
 58: Gums and other deposits in heartwood vessels
Wood vesselless
 59: Vesselless
 60: Vascular / vasicentric tracheids present
Ground tissue fibres
 61: Fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits
 62: Fibres with distinctly bordered pits
 63: Fibres pits common in both radial and tangential walls
 64: Helical thickenings in ground tissue fibres
Septate fibres and parenchyma-like fibre bands
 65: Septate fibres present
 66: Non-septate fibres present
 67: Parenchyma-like fibre bands alternating with ordinary fibres
Fibre wall thickness
 68: Very thin-walled
 69: Thin- to thick-walled
 70: Very thick-walled
Mean fibre lengths
 71: ≦900μm
 72: 900-1600μm
 73: ≧1600μm
 75: Absent or extremely rare
Apotracheal axial parenchyma
 76: Diffuse
 77: Diffuse-in-aggregates
Paratracheal axial parenchyma
 78: Scanty paratracheal
 79: Vasicentric
 80: Aliform
 81: Lozenge-aliform
 82: Winged-aliform
 83: Confluent
 84: Unilateral paratracheal
Banded parenchyma
 85: Bands more than three cells wide
 86: In narrow bands or lines up to three cells wide
 87: Reticulate
 88: Scalariform
 89: In marginal or in seemingly marginal bands
Axial parenchyma cell type / strand length
 90: Fusiform parenchyma cells
 91: Two cells per parenchyma strand
 92: Four(3-4)cells per parenchyma strand
 93: Eight(5-8)cells per parenchyma strand
 94: Over eight cells per parenchyma strand
 95: Unlignified parenchyma
Ray width
 96: Exclusively uniseriate
 97: 1 to 3 cells
 98: Larger rays commonly 4- to 10- seriate
 99: Larger rays commonly > 10- seriate
 100: Rays with multiseriate portion(s) as wide as uniseriate portions
Aggregate rays
 101: Aggregate rays
Ray height
 102: Ray height > 1mm
Rays of two distinct sizes
 103: Rays of two distinct sizes
Rays: cellular composition
 104: All ray cells procumbent
 105: All ray cells upright and/or square
 106: Body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and/or square marginal cells
 107: Body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2-4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells
 108: Body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells
 109: Rays with procumbent, square and upright cells mixed throughout the ray
Sheath cells
 110: Sheath cells
Tile cells
 111: Tile cells
Perforated ray cells
 112: Perforated ray cells
Disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls
 113: Disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls
Rays per millimetre
 114: ≦4 /mm
 115: 4-12 /mm
 116: ≧12 /mm
Wood rayless
 117: Wood rayless
 118: All rays storied
 119: Low rays storied, high rays nonstoried
 120: Axial parenchyma and/or vessel elements storied
 121: Fibres storied
 122: Rays and/or axial elements irregularly storied
 123: Number of ray tiers per axial mm
Oil and mucilage cells
 124: Associated with ray parenchyma
 125: Associated with axial parenchyma
 126: Present among fibres
Intercellular canals
 127: Axial canals in long tangential lines
 128: Axial canals in short tangential lines
 129: Axial canals diffuse
 130: Radial canals
 131: Intercellular canals of traumatic origin
Tubes / tubules
 132: Laticifers or tanniniferous tubes
Cambial variants
 133: Interxylary phloem, concentric
 134: Interxylary phloem, diffuse
 135: Other cambial variants
Prismatic crystals
 136: Present
 137: In upright and/or square ray cells
 138: In procumbent ray cells
 139: In radial alignment in procumbent ray cells
 140: In chambered upright and/or square ray cells
 141: In non-chambered axial parenchyma cells
 142: In chambered axial parenchyma cells
 143: In fibres
 144: Present
 145: In ray parenchyma cells
 146: In axial parenchyma cells
 147: In fibres
 148: In chambered cells
Other crystal types
 149: Raphides
 150: Acicular crystals
 151: Styloids and/or elongate crystals
 152: Crystals of other shapes (mostly small)
 153: Crystal sand
Other diagnostic crystal features
 154: More than one crystal of about the same size per cell or chamber
 155: Two distinct sizes of crystals per cell or chamber
 156: Crystals in enlarged cells
 157: Crystals in tyloses
 158: Cystoliths
 159: Present
 160: In ray cells
 161: In axial parenchyma cells
 162: In fibres
 163: Vitreous silica

Reference: IAWA Comittee, IAWA Bulletin n.s. 10(3): 219-332, 1989

IAWA Softwood List

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Growth ring boundaries
 40: Distinct
 41: Indistinct or absent
Transition from earlywood to latewood
 42: Abrupt
 43: Gradual
Tracheid pitting in radial walls (in earlywood only)
 44: Uniseriate
 45: Two or more seriate
Arrangement of tracheid pitting in radial walls (earlywood only)
 46: Opposite
 47: Alternate
Organic deposits (in heartwood tracheids)
 48: Present
Average tracheid length (size classes)
 50: Short (less than 3000 μm)
 51: Medium (3000 to 5000 μm)
 52: Long (over 5000 μm)
Intercellular spaces throughout the wood (in transverse section)
 53: Present
Latewood tracheid wall thickness
 54: Thin-walled (double wall thickness less than radial lumen diameter)
 55: Thick-walled (double wall thickness larger than radial lumen diameter)
Torus (pits in earlywood tracheids only)
 56: Present
 57: Scalloped
Torus extensions
 58: Present
Pits with notched borders
 59: Present
Warty layer (visible under the light microscope)
 60: Present
Helical thickenings in tracheids
Helical thickenings in longitudinal tracheids
 61: Present
 62: Present throughout the growth increment
 63: Well developed only in earlywood
 64: Well developed only in latewood
 65: Single
 66: Grouped (double or triple)
 67: Narrowly spaced (number of coils more than 120 per mm)
 68: Widely spaced (number of coils less than 120 per mm)
Helical thickenings in ray tracheids
 69: Commonly present
 70: (present but) Rare
Callitroid thickenings
 71: Present
Axial parenchyma (excl. epithelial and subsidiary cells of intercellular canals)
 72: Present
Arrangement of axial parenchyma
 73: Diffuse
 74: Tangentially zonate
 75: Marginal
Transverse end walls
 76: Smooth
 77: Irregularly thickened
 78: Beaded or nodular
Ray tracheids
 79: Commonly present
 80: Absent or very rare
Cell walls of ray tracheids
 81: Smooth
 82: Dentate
 83: Reticulate
Ray tracheid pit borders angular or with dentate thickenings (radial section, Larix & Picea only)
 84: Present
End walls of ray parenchyma cells
 85: Smooth (unpitted)
 86: Distinctly pitted
Horizontal walls of ray parenchyma cells
 87: Smooth (unpitted)
 88: Distinctly pitted
 89: Present
Cross-field pitting
 90: “Window-like” (fenestriform)
 91: Pinoid
 92: Piceoid
 93: Cupressoid
 94: Taxodioid
 95: Araucarioid
Number of pits per cross-field (earlywood tracheids only)
 97: (large window-like) 1-2
 98: 1-3
 99: 3-5
 100: 6 or more
Average ray height (number of cells)
 102: Very low (up to 4 cells)
 103: Medium (5 to 15 cells)
 104: High (from 16 to 30 cells)
 105: Very high (more than 30 cells)
Ray width (cells)
 107: Exclusively uniseriate
 108: 2-3-seriate in part
Axial intercellular (resin) canals
 109: Present
Radial intercellular (resin) canals
 110: Present
Traumatic (resin) canals (axial, radial)
 111: Present
Average diameter of normal axial intercellular canals*
  Tangential diameter, delimited by epithelial cells (Method A)
     112: 40-100 μm
     113: 100-170 μm
     114: 170-300 μm
Epithelial cells (of intercellular canals)
 116: Thick-walled
 117: Thin-walled
 118: Present
Type of crystals
 119: Prismatic
 120: Druses
 121: Other forms (specify)
Crystals located in
 122: Rays
 123: Axial parenchyma
 124: Cells associated with intercellular canals

Reference: IAWA Comittee, IAWA Journal 25 (1): 1–70, 2004. *The codes, 112-114, were modified in this Atlas and different from IAWA Softwood List.

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Anatomical Database and Atlas of Chinese Woods


Takao ITOH

Associate Editors & Authors

Biao PAN, Yuzou SANO

Guest Editor

Pieter BAAS


Jiayan LUO, Dagang LI, and Yongzhi CUI

Transverse section image by optical microscopy.
From left to right; Mesua ferrea (铁力木), Taxus cuspidate (东北红豆杉), Aquilaria sinensis (土沉香) in upper row. Pterocarpus indicus (紫檀), Senna siamea (铁刀木) in lower row.
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China has the most diverse plant vegetation in the northern hemisphere. This diversity includes more than 30,000 species of higher plants, approximately one third of which are woody. Plant species face many threats to survival, with current extinction rates reported to be higher than in pre-historic times. The higher rates of extinction is not just because of climate change, but also due to exploitation, habitat loss, and environmental pollution all over the world. Drastic changes in the environment and economy have taken place in the last two to three decades in China. For instance, land development has advanced much more rapidly in all provinces in parallel with the economic boom. Consequently, a number of traditional folk-houses have been destroyed or modified for other economic purposes. At the same time, a great number of historic or archaeological sites have been excavated during land development throughout the country. In many cases, archaeological sites are filled with large amounts of timber and logs. This situation has given opportunities for wood scientists and archaeologists to get involved in identification of traditionally used wood species, and helps in the restoration of cultural heritage.

The authors have been actively involved in the identification of wood components of cultural treasures such as temples and shrines, and of Buddhist statues, and archaeological wooden remaims in China and Japan, to understand “wood culture” from a scientific aspect. However, references for identifying wood species in China are limited. The most reliable and useful book for this purpose is an out-of-print book “Wood atlas in China” (中国木材志, zhong guo mu cai zhi), which describes anatomical features of wood from 36 softwood species and 315 hardwood species, along with microscopic images from 52 softwood and 240 hardwood species. However, there are about 10,000 or more species of woody plants growing in China, including shrubs and vines. A reference with description of a limited number of woody plant species will not be sufficient for identification of wood species excavated from archaeological sites, or for reconstruction of the forest vegetation from the past. In view of insufficient information of the anatomical features of various wood species in China, we started to build the database as part of a mission to keep a record of the diversity of microscopic features of wood from China.

The publication under the title Anatomical Database and Atlas of Chinese Woods will be of some help not only in the scientific understanding of wood culture, but also in the prevention of illegal logging of trees and forest conservation, and the authors have worked together for many years to prepare microscope slides of various Chinese wood specimens, describe microscopic features and take microscope images. In consideration of the biodiversity of Chinese trees, approximately 1,300 woody species including the CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)-listed, endangered and endemic trees are covered in this database.


The main features and advantages of this database are as follows:

  1. Wood specimens were mainly donated by Nanjing Forestry University, followed by some other Universities and Research Institutions in China as well as Japan.
  2. Consideration was given to include as many species and genera as possible, including endangered species and endemic species.
  3. In this database and atlas, we provide anatomical features and microscopic images of 1,255 species of Chinese wood in 120 families and 470 genera.
  4. Selected maps and stereomicroscopic images are provided as additional information.
  5. Microscopic features are organized according to the IAWA Softwood and Hardwood Lists.
  6. The anatomical features or micrographs of approximately 1,300 species of Chinese wood can be easily searched by scientific name and/or pinyin of Chinese name using a computer.
  7. The scientific names in this database can be displayed according to the APG IV classification and the "Flora of China" standard of use.
  8. In addition, computerized retrieval of wood anatomical features can help identify unknown wood species.


We hope that the database will be helpful in the studies of Chinese woods related to wood science, tree biology, paleobotany, archeology, vegetation history, architecture, art history and other special fields.

The construction of the database of Chinese woods, analyzed at the microscopic level, was supported by a JSPS Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI), Grant Number JP20580187, and performed at the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Japan. Part of this research was supported by the collaborative Researches using Database at the Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH), Kyoto, Japan.

The authors express special thanks to the Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University. Especially, the editor-in-chief is indebted to RISH for giving him the support and environment to initiate this database project, and to the College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University for inviting him as a Specially Appointed Professor, and giving him the opportunity to advance the cooperative research for preparing and editing the database of Chinese woods.

The authors also express their thanks to Professor Yongji Xu at Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China; Professor Yixing Liu at Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; Professor Xinqiang He at Peking University, Beijing, China; Professor Jian Qiu at Southwest Forestry University (SWFU), Kunming, China; Professor Jianying Xu at Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, China; Dr. Guoxiong Huang at the Forest Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan; Professor Junji Sugiyama (former professor in Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere) at Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, and Visiting Professor Shuichi Noshiro, at the Center for Obsidian and Lithic Studies, Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan and former Team Leader at the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan for providing Chinese woods specimens. Additionally, the authors express their thanks to Dr. Tomoyuki Fujii, Fellow, the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan, and Dr. Shuichi Noshiro for critically reviewing descriptions and photomicrographs in this database. In particular, Dr. Fujii made full use of the photo enlargement function to proofread the database, which further increased the reliability of the database; Dr. Mechtild Mertz, Researcher, East Asian Civilisations Research Centre (CRCAO-CNRS), Paris, France for reviewing uses of almost all species listed in our database; Dr. Koji Yonekura, at the Research Center of the Okinawa Churashima Foundation, Okinawa, Japan for critically reviewing the scientific names of all species listed in this database; Emeritus Professor, Mitsuo Suzuki, at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, for valuable advice in the scientific names of the database; Dr. Bei Luo, Associate Professor, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China for reviewing the pinyin and Chinese character of vernacular names; Dr. Feng Wang, Post-doctoral fellow, Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Québec, Canada. and MSc. Jin Hou, graduated from School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China for their great contributions in drawing distribution maps; MSc. Shisi Yang, graduated from the College of Art and Design, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China for reviewing province names corresponding to the distribution maps; Mr. Yoshitsugu Yasumoto, Prior Expert, Asahi Woodtec Corporation, Osaka, Japan for taking stereomicroscopic photos of wood species listed in our database; Dr. Inder Saxena, Assistant Professor of Instruction, the University of Texas at Austin, U. S. A. for going through the text in the database.

Last but not least, the authors are deeply grateful to Hisashi Miyauchi, President of Kaiseisha Press, Ohtsu, Japan for his acceptance and patience in publishing this database and to Masato Fukui, Chief Manager of Kaiseisha Press, for his great skills of constructing the computer-aided search programs in our database.

Takao ITOH   

I. Construction of the database

1.  Introduction

We constructed a database of microscopic features of 1,255 wood species from China (a) to assist in wood identification of any type of wood or wood product, such as wood cultural items, (b) to use this database for teaching, and (c) for any other purposes in China and other countries. In constructing this database, we specially considered the “biodiversity” factor, and described not only commercial timbers, but also endemic and endangered species (1, see Appendix Table 3).

Basically, we targeted wood species that are indigenous in China, but we also included some foreign species, introduced and/or cultivated in China because of their high commercial value, Eucalyptus spp., Santalum album, Pterocarpus santalinus, Hevea brasiliensis, Swietenia mahagoni, and Tectona grandis etc. We made efforts to describe as many woody families and genera as possible to cover a wide range of taxonomically diverse species from the perspective of biodiversity in trees. Additionally, we included wood specimens of some shrubs and vines donated by some xylaria in Japan. This was important as xylaria of universities and institutions in Japan store collections of Chinese woods, and wood specimens from these shrubs and vines are limited to the xylaria in China. Many wood species grows in both China and Japan. Due to the shortage of collecting some wood species in China, we utilized those grown and collected in Japan as shown in table 1.

Table 1. Wood species grown and collected in Japan.

APG-FamilyAPG-Family (Chinese)APG-SpeciesSpecies-Chinese name
Cupressaceae 柏科 Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zuccarini) Endlicher 日本扁柏
Cupressaceae 柏科 Thujopsis dolabrata (Thunberg ex Linnaeus f.) Siebold & Zuccarini 罗汉柏
Pinaceae 松科 Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zuccarini) Carrière 卵果鱼鳞云杉
Actinidiaceae 猕猴桃科 Actinidia polygama (Siebold & Zuccarini) Maximowicz 葛枣猕猴桃
Rubiaceae 茜草科 Aidia henryi (E. Pritzel) T. Yamazaki 茜树
Lardizabalaceae 木通科 Akebia quinata (Houttuyn) Decaisne 木通
Fabaceae 豆科 Amorpha fruticosa Linnaeus 紫穗槐
Apocynaceae 夹竹桃科 Anodendron affine (Hooker & Arnott) Druce 鳝藤
Phyllanthaceae 叶下珠科 Antidesma japonicum Siebold & Zuccarini 酸味子
Primulaceae 报春花科 Ardisia crenata Sims 朱砂根
Primulaceae 报春花科 Ardisia sieboldii Miquel 多枝紫金牛
Berberidaceae 小檗科 Berberis amurensis Ruprecht 黄芦木
Fabaceae 豆科 Biancaea decapetala (Roth) O. Degener 云实
Lamiaceae 唇形科 Callicarpa japonica Thunberg 日本紫珠
Theaceae 山茶科 Camellia japonica Linnaeus 山茶
Theaceae 山茶科 Camellia sinensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze
Bignoniaceae 紫葳科 Catalpa ovata G. Don
Celastraceae 卫矛科 Celastrus orbiculatus Thunberg 南蛇藤
Oleaceae 木犀科 Chionanthus retusus Lindley & Paxton 流苏树
Rutaceae 芸香科 Citrus trifoliata Linnaeus
Lamiaceae 唇形科 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunberg 海州常山
Menispermaceae 防己科 Cocculus laurifolius Candolle 樟叶木防己
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Crataegus cuneata Siebold & Zuccarini 野山楂
Thymelaeaceae 瑞香科 Daphne odora Thunberg 瑞香
Hydrangeaceae 绣球科 Deutzia crenata Siebold & Zuccarini 齿叶溲疏
Sapindaceae 无患子科 Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin 车桑子
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Dryas octopetala Linnaeus var. asiatica (Nakai) Nakai 东亚仙女木
Thymelaeaceae 瑞香科 Edgeworthia chrysantha Lindley 结香
Boraginaceae 紫草科 Ehretia dicksonii Hance 粗糠树
Elaeagnaceae 胡颓子科 Elaeagnus multiflora Thunberg 木半夏
Elaeagnaceae 胡颓子科 Elaeagnus pungens Thunberg 胡颓子
Celastraceae 卫矛科 Euonymus oxyphyllus Miquel 垂丝卫矛
Araliaceae 五加科科 Fatsia japonica (Thunberg) Decaisne & Planchon 八角金盘
Fabaceae 豆科 Gleditsia japonica Miquel 山皂荚
Helwingiaceae 青荚叶科 Helwingia japonica (Thunberg) F. Dietrich 青荚叶
Malvaceae 锦葵科 Hibiscus mutabilis Linnaeus 木芙蓉
Malvaceae 锦葵科 Hibiscus syriacus Linnaeus 木槿
Hydrangeaceae 绣球科 Hydrangea paniculata Siebold 圆锥绣球
Hypericaceae 金丝桃科 Hypericum monogynum Linnaeus 金丝桃
Aquifoliaceae 冬青科 Ilex crenata Thunberg 齿叶冬青
Lythraceae 千屈菜科 Lagerstroemia indica Linnaeus 紫薇
Rubiaceae 茜草科 Lasianthus japonicus Miquel 日本粗叶木
Fabaceae 豆科 Lespedeza buergeri Miquel 绿叶胡枝子
Oleaceae 木犀科 Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zuccarini 水蜡树
Caprifoliaceae 忍冬科 Lonicera japonica Thunberg 忍冬
Solanaceae 茄科 Lycium chinense Miller 枸杞
Primulaceae 报春花科 Maesa japonica (Thunberg) Moritzi & Zollinger 杜茎山
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Malus toringoides (Rehder) Hughes 变叶海棠
Celastraceae 卫矛科 Microtropis japonica (Franchet & Savatier) H. Hallier 日本假卫矛
Rubiaceae 茜草科 Morinda citrifolia Linnaeus 海滨木巴戟
Berberidaceae 小檗科 Nandina domestica Thunberg 南天竹
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Neillia incisa (Thunberg) S.H. Oh 小米空木
Vitaceae 葡萄科 Nekemias cantoniensis (Hooker & Arnott) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie 广东蛇葡萄
Urticaceae 荨麻科 Oreocnide pedunculata (Shirai) Masamune 长梗紫麻
Rutaceae 芸香科 Orixa japonica Thunberg 臭常山
Paeoniaceae 芍药科 Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews 牡丹
Rhamnaceae 鼠李科 Paliurus ramosissimus (Loureiro) Poiret 马甲子
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Photinia glabra (Thunberg) Maximowicz 光叶石楠
Phyllanthaceae 叶下珠科 Phyllanthus flexuosus (Siebold & Zuccarini) Müller Argoviensis 落萼叶下珠
Pittosporaceae 海桐花科 Pittosporum tobira (Thunberg) W. T Aiton 海桐
Rubiaceae 茜草科 Psychotria asiatica Linnaeus 九节
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Rhodotypos scandens (Thunberg) Makino 鸡麻
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Rosa multiflora Thunberg 野蔷薇
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Rubus crataegifolius Bunge 牛叠肚
Rosaceae 蔷薇科 Sorbaria sorbifolia (Linnaeus) A. Braun 珍珠梅
Staphyleaceae 省沽油科 Staphylea bumalda Candolle 省沽油
Rubiaceae 茜草科 Tarenna gracilipes (Hayata) Ohwi 薄叶玉心花
Apocynaceae 夹竹桃科 Trachelospermum asiaticum (Siebold & Zuccarini) Nakai 亚洲络石
Rubiaceae 茜草科 Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miquel) Miquel 钩藤

2.  Collection of wood specimens

Wood specimens were donated or collected from various universities and institutions of China and Japan. These include Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China; Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China; Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China; Peking University, Beijing, China; Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, China; Forest Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan; Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; Osaka Museum of Natural History, Osaka, Japan.

3.  Preparation of slides

Microscopic slides were mainly prepared by some authors, Yongzhi Cui, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin and to a lesser degree by Dagang Li, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjjing and by Takao Itoh, Kyoto University, Kyoto. Using a sliding microtome (Yamato Koki Industrial Co. Ltd., Japan), sections with a thickness between 10 and 20 µm were prepared from the wood specimens. All sections were stained with safranin and subsequently dehydrated using a series of alcohol concentrations and finally mounted in Biolite (Okenshoji Co., Ltd., Japan), a mounting medium used as an alternative to Canada Balsam. After sectioning, the small wood blocks were dried at room temperature and stored in custom-made wooden containers (30 x 42 x 3 cm) (Fig. 1). Each container can hold 195 wood blocks.

Figure 1. Wooden container for keeping wood blocks after microtome-sectioning.

4.  Description of microscopic features

When we started to construct a database of Chinese woods, we have compiled a list of all scientific and Chinese names given in the four-volume Atlas of Chinese trees (中国树木志), as a basic data source (2). We then used the “Flora of China” website as a reference for more up-to-date scientific and Chinese names of families, genera and species (3). The headings of species description include not only the latest scientific and Chinese names (in block letters), but also old scientific names and/or synonyms, and other Chinese names with pinyin (in non-block letters). After adding pinyin according to the “Flora of China”, some corrections were made according to the electronic document, “Correction of common names and unification of pinyin used for plants in ‘Flora of China’;《中国植物志》植物中文普通名的订正和读音的统一”(5).

In view of the fact that angiosperm classification by APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) is increasingly accepted by the scientific community, we made a comparative table of the nomenclature of family and/or species names between FOC (Flora of China) and APG(see Table 4 in Appendix, in which tree species without any changes of family and/or species name are not included. Finally, the database was constructed to compare and search taxa used in APG IV and Flora of China (see contents “IV. Instructions for Database Search”).

As can be imagined from the background mentioned above, the scientific names used in our database are organized primarily according to the newer classification standard, “APG Ⅳ Web Site” (4) with some modification by K. Yonekura (6), and also according to “Flora of China Web Site” (3) for the convenience of easy access to the scientific names and various characteristics of most of the trees growing in China on the Internet.


Microscopic features are described according to the following standard:

The order and arrangement of wood species: Basically, family names, genus names within a family, and species names within a genus are arranged alphabetically in our database to facilitate sorting of family, genus and species by the users. In addition, the computer-assisted search is enabled for wood species according to the classification of APG Ⅳ or “Flora of China”.

Two-page spread: Data of each species are shown in a two-page spread, especially for eBook and paperback. The description of microscopic features, a map of species distribution, and a low magnification image are shown on one page, while 9 photomicrographs are shown on the other page.

Descriptions: The headings of the descriptions include “Scientific Name”, “Synonym” and “Vernacular Name”. “Softwood” or “Hardwood” and “Family/Genus names” appear on the left or right in the upper margin of each page. The height and diameter of the trees, their habitat and distribution area are given in "General". These information are mainly cited from “Atlas of Chinese Trees” or “Flora of China” (2, 3). The provincial distributions in “General” for most species are cited from the references listed in Table 5 and 6 in Chapter II and partly from “Flora of China” (3). Endemic species, and the categories of “critically endangered”, “endangered” or “vulnerable” species are also included in the “General” category. Microscopic features of each species are described in the order of the following items: “Growth rings”, “Tracheids”, “Axial parenchyma”, “Rays”, “Intercellular canals” for softwoods and “Growth rings”, “Vessels”, “Tracheids and Fibers”, “Axial parenchyma”, “Rays”, “Intercellular canals” or (“Tubes/tubules” or “Cambial variants”) for hardwoods. “Uses”, “IAWA Codes” and “Source of wood specimens” are described after microscopic features in both softwoods and hardwoods (7, 8).

Uses: Most data in Uses are based on the “Wood Atlas in China” by Cheng et al. (9), Sylva Sinica by Zheng (2) as well as the “Flora of China” online database (3). The various uses are arranged in a way, that first those entries are listed that reflect the characteristics of the respective wood species, like grain and color, or properties like strength and flexibility, and finally industrial uses, like electrical poles or pulp and paper. For technical terms in English relating to the wood and its use, we refer to Corkhill’s “The Complete Dictionary of Wood” (10). As for the specific uses of Buddhist or Deity sculptures, we refer to “The Study of Buddhist Sculptures from Japan and China Based on Wood Identification”, 2007, by Mertz and Itoh (11) and “A Study of the Wood Species of 73 Deity Sculptures of the Hunan Province, from the Patrice Fava Collection”, 2010, by Mertz and Itoh (12).

IAWA codes: Key microscopic features of individual wood species are abbreviated as IAWA codes for both, softwood and hardwood, according to the IAWA Lists of Microscopic Features for Softwood and Hardwood Identification (7, 8). IAWA codes for individual species were assessed strictly by the authors, to assist in the computerized wood identification module that forms the most useful part of this database, being explained in detail in the chapter IV “Instruction for database search”.

Source of wood specimens: Source of wood specimens are described using a collection acronym (Table 2). In some cases, a slide number is used as an alternative to the collection acronym for wood specimens.

Table 2. Collection acronym or other registered abbreviation in Xylarium.

Collection acronym or other registered abbreviationCollection affiliation
BannaNanjing Forestry University, China; specimen originated from Xishuangbanna
CSUFTwCentral South University of Forestry and Technology, China
DonglinNortheast Forestry University, China
GuangxiNanjing Forestry University, China; specimen originated from Guangxi
Guizhou Nanjing Forestry University, China; specimen originated from Guizhou Academy of Forestry
HainanNanjing Forestry University, China; specimen originated from Hainan island
HUHokkaido University, Japan
KYOwResearch Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Japan
LinkeyuanNanjing Forestry University, China; specimen originated from Wood Production Institute, Chinese Academy of Forestry, China
NanlinNanjing Forestry University, China
OSAwOsaka Museum of Natural History, Japan
PUPeking University, China
ShaanxiNanjing Forestry University, China; specimen originated from Shaanxi
SWFUwSouthwest Forestry University, China
TAIFwForestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan
TaiwanResearch Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Japan; slides originated from Taiwan
TOFOwTokyo University, Japan
TWTwForestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan
YunnanNanjing Forestry University, China; specimen originated from Yunnan

Map of tree distribution: See details in chapter III (Construction of tree distribution maps in China).

Stereo microscope images: After preparing microscope slides, small wood blocks were stored in wooden containers, as shown in Fig. 1. Each container allowed storage of a maximum of 195 wood blocks. Wood blocks were observed with a stereo microscope (Leica Co. Ltd., MZ APO) and images were taken using a computer-assisted digital camera (Olympus Co. Ltd., DP-72) with Intralux 6000-1 as the source of illumination (Switzerland; Power:1, Intensity: Low). For species where no stereo microscope image is available, an optical microscope image was taken using a 2x lens and used in place of stereo microscope image.

Optical microscope images: Microscopic images of three different sections (cross, radial and tangential) were taken using a computer-assisted digital camera (Olympus Co., Ltd., DP-70) attached to an optical microscope (Olympus Co., Ltd., BH-2 and BX51) in the private house of editor-in-chief or in the laboratory of Biomass Morphogenesis and Information, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective lenses used for microscopic observations were basically x2, x4, x10, x20, and x40. For some wood species, a photomicrograph was taken using a computer-assisted microscopic digital camera (Carl Zeiss Co., Ltd.) attached to an optical microscope (Carl Zeiss Co., Ltd., AXIO PHOTO) in the laboratory of Dendrochronological Dating section, Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Japan. A x2.5 objective lens was used for taking low magnification images of cross sections. Tangential sectional images of some hardwood samples with broad rays were often taken by a x2 objective lens. Optical microscope images of cross-field pittings in softwood and vessel-ray pittings in hardwood were always taken with a x40 objective lens. Commonly, images with three different magnifications of cross-, radial- and tangential-sections were taken for each sample to show various microscopic features.

5.  Appendices

Two additional tables are included as appendices to help readers use this database; one is a list of “Endemic and endangered species in this database” (Table 3) and the other a list of “Comparison of scientific names and family classification in FOC (Flora of China) and APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny) IV (Table 4). The former is cited from “Threatened Species List of China’s Higher Plants (1) reported by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in China in co-operation with the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The latter is basically in accordance with the FOC and APG IV with some modification by the recommendation of Koji Yonekura who is a distinguished plant taxonomist and an author of the reference (6).

Table 3. Endemic and endangered species in this database.

* IUCN Red List in this table is cited from “Threatened Species List of China’s Higher Plants (1) reported by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in co-operation with Chinese Academy of Sciences. The list of Chinese version is based on the assessment of IUCN Red List.
NoFamilyFamily (Chinese)SpeciesVernacular name (Chinese)EndemicCategories in CITES and IUCN Red List*
1Cupressaceae柏科Chamaecyparis formosensis红桧Endangered
2Cupressaceae柏科Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana台湾扁柏Vulnerable
3Cupressaceae柏科Cupressus duclouxiana干香柏Vulnerable
4Cupressaceae柏科Cupressus torulosa西藏柏木Endangered
5Cupressaceae柏科Fokienia hodginsii福建柏Vulnerable
6Cupressaceae柏科Glyptostrobus pensilis水松Critically Endangered
7Cupressaceae柏科Juniperus rigida杜松Endangered
8Cupressaceae柏科Metasequoia glyptostroboides水杉Critically Endangered
9Cupressaceae柏科Taiwania cryptomerioides台湾杉Vulnerable
10Ginkgoaceae银杏科Ginkgo biloba银杏Critically Endangered
11Pinaceae松科Abies chensiensis秦岭冷杉Vulnerable
12Pinaceae松科Abies fargesii巴山冷杉Vulnerable
13Pinaceae松科Abies nukiangensis怒江冷杉Vulnerable
14Pinaceae松科Abies sibirica鲜卑冷杉Vulnerable
15Pinaceae松科Cathaya argyrophylla银杉Vulnerable
16Pinaceae松科Cedrus deodara雪松Vulnerable
17Pinaceae松科Keteleeria davidiana铁坚油杉Vulnerable
18Pinaceae松科Keteleeria evelyniana云南油杉Vulnerable
19Pinaceae松科Keteleeria fortunei油杉Vulnerable
20Pinaceae松科Keteleeria fortunei var. cyclolepis江南油杉Vulnerable
21Pinaceae松科Larix gmelinii落叶松Vulnerable
22Pinaceae松科Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii华北落叶松Vulnerable
23Pinaceae松科Larix mastersiana四川红杉Endangered
24Pinaceae松科Larix sibirica新疆落叶松Vulnerable
25Pinaceae松科Larix speciosa怒江红杉Critically Endangered
26Pinaceae松科Picea meyeri白扦Vulnerable
27Pinaceae松科Picea morrisonicola台湾云杉Endangered
28Pinaceae松科Picea neoveitchii大果青扦Vulnerable
29Pinaceae松科Picea smithiana长叶云杉Endangered
30Pinaceae松科Pinus bungeana白皮松Endangered
31Pinaceae松科Pinus densiflora var. ussuriensis兴凯赤松Vulnerable
32Pinaceae松科Pinus kesiya卡西亚松Vulnerable
33Pinaceae松科Pinus koraiensis红松AppendixⅢ; Critically Endangered
34Pinaceae松科Pinus pumila偃松Critically Endangered
35Pinaceae松科Pinus roxburghii西藏长叶松Critically Endangered
36Pinaceae松科Pinus sibirica新疆五针松Vulnerable
37Pinaceae松科Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica樟子松Vulnerable
38Pinaceae松科Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis长白松Critically Endangered
39Pinaceae松科Pinus tabuliformis var. henryi巴山松Vulnerable
40Pinaceae松科Pseudolarix amabilis金钱松Vulnerable
41Pinaceae松科Pseudotsuga sinensis黄杉Vulnerable
42Pinaceae松科Pseudotsuga sinensis var. wilsoniana台湾黄杉Endangered
43Pinaceae松科Tsuga chinensis var. forrestii丽江铁杉Vulnerable
44Pinaceae松科Tsuga dumosa云南铁杉Vulnerable
45Pinaceae松科Nothotsuga longibracteata(Tsuga longibracteata)长苞铁杉Vulnerable
46Podocarpaceae罗汉松科Dacrycarpus imbricatus var. patulus展叶鸡毛松Vulnerable
47Podocarpaceae罗汉松科Dacrydium pectinatum陆均松Endangered
48Podocarpaceae罗汉松科Nageia nagi竹柏Endangered
49Podocarpaceae罗汉松科Podocarpus macrophyllus罗汉松Vulnerable
50Podocarpaceae罗汉松科Podocarpus nakaii台湾罗汉松Endangered
51Podocarpaceae罗汉松科Podocarpus neriifolius百日青Appendix Ⅲ;Vulnerable
52Podocarpaceae罗汉松科Podocarpus wangii小叶罗汉松Endangered
53Taxaceae红豆杉科Amentotaxus argotaenia穗花杉Vulnerable
54Taxaceae红豆杉科Taxus wallichiana var. chinensis(Taxus chinensis)红豆杉Appendix Ⅱ;Endangered
55Taxaceae红豆杉科Taxus cuspidata东北红豆杉Appendix Ⅱ;Endangered
56Taxaceae红豆杉科Taxus wallichiana var. mairei(Taxus mairei)南方红豆杉Vulnerable
57Taxaceae红豆杉科Taxus wallichiana须弥红豆杉Appendix Ⅱ;Vulnerable
58Aceraceae槭树科Acer mandshuricum东北槭Vulnerable
59Aceraceae槭树科Acer palmatum鸡爪槭Vulnerable
60Aceraceae槭树科Acer pilosum var. pilosum疏毛槭Vulnerable
61Anacardiaceae漆树科Dracontomelon macrocarpum大果人面子Endangered
62Anacardiaceae漆树科Mangifera sylvatica林生杧果Endangered
63Annonaceae番荔枝科Miliusa horsfieldii囊瓣木Vulnerable
64Annonaceae番荔枝科Mitrephora wangii云南银钩花Vulnerable
65Annonaceae番荔枝科Orophea hainanensis澄广花Vulnerable
66Araliaceae五加科Gamblea ciliata var. evodiifolia吴茱萸五加Vulnerable
67Araliaceae五加科Heteropanax yunnanensis云南幌伞枫Endangered
68Clethraceae山柳科Clethra fargesii城口桤叶树Endangered
69Clusiaceae藤黄科Garcinia kwangsiensis广西藤黄Endangered
70Clusiaceae藤黄科Garcinia paucinervis金丝李Vulnerable
71Combretaceae使君子科Lumnitzera littorea红榄李Vulnerable
72Combretaceae使君子科Terminalia bellirica毗黎勒Endangered
73Connaraceae牛栓藤科Ellipanthus glabrifolius单叶豆Endangered
74Dilleniaceae五桠果科Dillenia indica五桠果Endangered
75Dipentodontaceae十齿花科Perrottetia arisanensis台湾核子木Vulnerable
76Dipterocarpaceae龙脑香科Shorea chinensis (Hopea chinensis)狭叶坡垒Vulnerable
77Dipterocarpaceae龙脑香科Hopea hainanensis坡垒Endangered
78Dipterocarpaceae龙脑香科Shorea chinensis (Parashorea chinensis)望天树Endangered
79Dipterocarpaceae龙脑香科Vatica guangxiensis广西青梅Critically Endangered
80Dipterocarpaceae龙脑香科Vatica mangachapoi青梅Vulnerable
81Elaeocarpaceae杜英科Elaeocarpus austroyunnanensis滇南杜英Vulnerable
82Elaeocarpaceae杜英科Elaeocarpus nitentifolius绢毛杜英Vulnerable
83Erythroxylaceae古柯科Ixonanthes reticulata粘木Vulnerable
84Eucommiaceae杜仲科Eucommia ulmoides杜仲Vulnerable
85Euphorbiaceae大戟科Cephalomappa sinensis肥牛树Vulnerable
86Euphorbiaceae大戟科Deutzianthus tonkinensis东京桐Endangered
87Fabaceae豆科Acrocarpus fraxinifolius顶果木Vulnerable
88Fabaceae豆科Dalbergia assamica秧青Endangered
89Fabaceae豆科Dalbergia cultrata黑黄檀Vulnerable
90Fabaceae豆科Dalbergia obtusifolia钝叶黄檀Endangered
91Fabaceae豆科Dalbergia odorifera降香黄檀Appendix Ⅲ;Critically Endangered
92Fabaceae豆科Erythrophleum fordii格木Vulnerable
93Fabaceae豆科Ormosia henryi花榈木Vulnerable
94Fabaceae豆科Ormosia hosiei红豆树Endangered
95Fabaceae豆科Ormosia yunnanensis云南红豆Critically Endangered
96Fabaceae豆科Peltophorum tonkinense银珠Endangered
97Fabaceae豆科Pterocarpus indicus紫檀Critically Endangered
98Fabaceae豆科Pterocarpus santalinus檀香紫檀Appendix Ⅱ
99Fabaceae豆科Saraca dives中国无忧花Vulnerable
100Fabaceae豆科Sindora glabra油楠Vulnerable
101Fabaceae豆科Zenia insignis任豆Vulnerable
102Fagaceae壳斗科Castanopsis hainanensis海南栲Vulnerable
103Fagaceae壳斗科Castanopsis kawakamii青钩栲Vulnerable
104Fagaceae壳斗科Castanopsis rufotomentosa红壳锥Critically Endangered
105Fagaceae壳斗科Quercus tenuicupula(Cyclobalanopsis tenuicupula)薄斗青冈Critically Endangered
106Fagaceae壳斗科Trigonobalanus doichangensis(Formanodendron doichangensis)三棱栎Vulnerable
107Fagaceae壳斗科Lithocarpus fenzelianus红柯Endangered
108Fagaceae壳斗科Lithocarpus fohaiensis勐海柯Vulnerable
109Fagaceae壳斗科Lithocarpus fordianus命脉柯Vulnerable
110Fagaceae壳斗科Quercus mongolica蒙栎Appendix Ⅲ
111Flacourtiaceae大风子科Gynocardia odorata马蛋果Endangered
112Flacourtiaceae大风子科Homalium ceylanicum斯里兰卡天料木Vulnerable
113Flacourtiaceae大风子科Hydnocarpus hainanensis海南大风子Vulnerable
114Hamamelidaceae金缕梅科Liquidambar yunnanensis(Altingia yunnanensis)云南蕈树Endangered
115Hamamelidaceae金缕梅科Chunia bucklandioides山铜材Endangered
116Hamamelidaceae金缕梅科Fortunearia sinensis牛鼻栓Vulnerable
117Hamamelidaceae金缕梅科Mytilaria laosensis壳菜果Vulnerable
118Hippocastanaceae七叶树科Handeliodendron bodinieri掌叶木Endangered
119Icacinaceae茶茱萸科Platea parvifolia东方肖榄Critically Endangered
120Juglandaceae胡桃科Carya cathayensis山核桃Vulnerable
121Juglandaceae胡桃科Juglans regia胡桃Vulnerable
122Juglandaceae胡桃科Pterocarya tonkinensis越南枫杨Vulnerable
123Lauraceae樟科Actinodaphne henryi思茅黄肉楠Vulnerable
124Lauraceae樟科Alseodaphne hainanensis油丹Vulnerable
125Lauraceae樟科Cinnamomum insularimontanum(Cinnamomum japonicum)天竺桂Vulnerable
126Lauraceae樟科Cinnamomum micranthum沉水樟Vulnerable
127Lauraceae樟科Litsea auriculata天目木姜子Vulnerable
128Lauraceae樟科Litsea szemaois思茅木姜子Critically Endangered
129Lauraceae樟科Machilus nanmu润楠Endangered
130Lauraceae樟科Neolitsea obtusifolia钝叶新木姜子Vulnerable
131Lauraceae樟科Neolitsea shingningensis新宁新木姜子Vulnerable
132Lauraceae樟科Phoebe bournei闽楠Vulnerable
133Lauraceae樟科Phoebe puwenensis普文楠Vulnerable
134Lauraceae樟科Phoebe zhennan楠木Vulnerable
135Lauraceae樟科Syndiclis lotungensis乐东油果樟Critically Endangered
136Lecythidaceae玉蕊科Barringtonia fusicarpa梭果玉蕊Vulnerable
137Lecythidaceae玉蕊科Barringtonia racemosa玉蕊Endangered
138Lythraceae千屈菜科Lagerstroemia balansae毛萼紫薇Endangered
139Lythraceae千屈菜科Lagerstroemia intermedia云南紫薇Vulnerable
140Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia cathcartii(Alcimandra cathcartii)长蕊木兰Vulnerable
141Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia henryi (Lirianthe henryi)大叶木兰Endangered
142Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia aromatica(Manglietia aromatica)香木莲Vulnerable
143Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia fordiana var. forrestii(Manglietia forrestii)滇桂木莲Vulnerable
144Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia kwangtungensis(Manglietia kwangtungensis)毛桃木莲Vulnerable
145Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia baillonii (Michelia baillonii)合果木Vulnerable
146Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia crassipes (Michelia crassipes)紫花含笑Endangered
147Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia odora (Michelia odora)观光木Vulnerable
148Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia globosa (Oyama globosa)毛叶天女花Vulnerable
149Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia lotungensis(Parakmeria lotungensis)乐东拟单性木兰Vulnerable
150Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia amoena (Yulania amoena)天目玉兰Vulnerable
151Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia campbellii(Yulania campbellii)滇藏玉兰Vulnerable
152Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia liliflora (Yulania liliiflora)紫玉兰Vulnerable
153Magnoliaceae木兰科Magnolia sargentiana(Yulania sargentiana)凹叶玉兰Vulnerable
154Meliaceae楝科Aglaia lawii望谟崖摩Vulnerable
155Meliaceae楝科Toona ciliata红椿Vulnerable
156Meliaceae楝科Swietenia macrophylla大叶桃花心木Appendix Ⅲ
157Meliaceae楝科Swietenia mahagoni桃花心木Appendix Ⅲ
158Moraceae桑科Artocarpus hypargyreus白桂木Endangered
159Moraceae桑科Artocarpus lakoocha野波罗蜜Vulnerable
160Myrtaceae桃金娘科Syzygium brachythyrsum短序蒲桃Endangered
161Oleaceae木犀科Fraxinus hupehensis湖北白蜡Endangered
162Proteaceae山龙眼科Helicia tsaii潞西山龙眼Vulnerable
163Rosaceae蔷薇科Pyrus pashia (Malus sikkimensis)锡金海棠Vulnerable
164Rubiaceae茜草科Adina cordifolia (Haldina cordifolia)心叶木Vulnerable
165Rubiaceae茜草科Nauclea officinalis乌檀Vulnerable
166Rutaceae芸香科Phellodendron amurense黄檗Vulnerable
167Salicaceae杨柳科Salix arbutifolia (Chosenia arbutifolia)钻天柳Vulnerable
168Sapindaceae无患子科Amesiodendron chinense细子龙Vulnerable
169Sapindaceae无患子科Dimocarpus longan龙眼Vulnerable
170Sapindaceae无患子科Litchi chinensis荔枝Endangered
171Sapindaceae无患子科Mischocarpus hainanensis海南柄果木Vulnerable
172Sapotaceae山榄科Madhuca hainanensis海南紫荆木Vulnerable
173Sapotaceae山榄科Madhuca pasquieri紫荆木Vulnerable
174Sapotaceae山榄科Pouteria grandifolia龙果Endangered
175Stachyuraceae旌节花科Stachyurus yunnanensis云南旌节花Vulnerable
176Sterculiaceae梧桐科Firmiana major云南梧桐Endangered
177Sterculiaceae梧桐科Heritiera angustata长柄银叶树Endangered
178Sterculiaceae梧桐科Heritiera littoralis银叶树Vulnerable
179Sterculiaceae梧桐科Heritiera parvifolia蝴蝶树Vulnerable
180Sterculiaceae梧桐科Pterospermum menglunense勐仑翅子树Endangered
181Sterculiaceae梧桐科Reevesia pycnantha密花梭罗Vulnerable
182Styracaceae安息香科Rehderodendron macrocarpum木瓜红Vulnerable
183Tetracentraceae水青树科Tetracentron sinense水青树Appendix Ⅲ
184Theaceae山茶科Camellia indochinensis var. indochinensis柠檬金花茶Vulnerable
185Theaceae山茶科Eurya megatrichocarpa大果毛柃Endangered
186Theaceae山茶科Stewartia calcicola云南紫茎Endangered
187Thymelaeaceae瑞香科Aquilaria sinensis土沉香Appendix Ⅲ;Vulnerable
188Tiliaceae椴树科Burretiodendron esquirolii柄翅果Vulnerable
189Tiliaceae椴树科Diplodiscus trichospermus海南椴Vulnerable
190Tiliaceae椴树科Burretiodendron obconicum (Excentrodendron obconicum)长蒴蚬木Critically Endangered
191Tiliaceae椴树科Excentrodendron tonkinense(Burretiodendron hsienmu)蚬木Endangered
192Tiliaceae椴树科Microcos chungii海南破布叶Vulnerable
193Tiliaceae椴树科Tilia miqueliana南京椴Vulnerable
194Trochodendraceae昆栏树科 Trochodendron aralioides昆栏树Vulnerable
195Ulmaceae榆科Ulmus elongata长序榆Endangered
196Verbenaceae马鞭草科Gmelina arborea云南石梓Vulnerable
197Verbenaceae马鞭草科Vitex pierreana莺哥木Vulnerable

Table 4. Comparative scientific name between FOC* and APG IV** in this database.

* FOC: Flora of China
** Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Ⅳ
      :Names of families and species after nomenclature change from FOC to APG IV
No.Family by FOCSpecies by FOCFamily by APG IVSpecies by APG IV
1TaxodiaceaeCryptomeria japonica var. sinensisCupressaceaeCryptomeria japonica var. sinensis
2TaxodiaceaeCunninghamia lanceolataCupressaceaeCunninghamia lanceolata
3CupressaceaeCupressus funebrisCupressaceaeCupressus pendula
4TaxodiaceaeGlyptostrobus pensilisCupressaceaeGlyptostrobus pensilis
5TaxodiaceaeMetasequoia glyptostroboidesCupressaceaeMetasequoia glyptostroboides
6TaxodiaceaeTaiwania cryptomerioidesCupressaceaeTaiwania cryptomerioides
7TaxodiaceaeTaxodium distichumCupressaceaeTaxodium distichum
8PinaceaeTsuga longibracteataPinaceaeNothotsuga longibracteata
9CephalotaxaceaeCephalotaxus fortuneiTaxaceaeCephalotaxus fortunei
10CephalotaxaceaeCephalotaxus manniiTaxaceaeCephalotaxus mannii
11CephalotaxaceaeCephalotaxus sinensisTaxaceaeCephalotaxus sinensis
12VerbenaceaeAvicennia marinaAcanthaceaeAvicennia marina
13FlacourtiaceaeGynocardia odorataAchariaceaeGynocardia odorata
14FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus hainanensisAchariaceaeHydnocarpus hainanensis
15BretschneideraceaeBretschneidera sinensisAkaniaceaeBretschneidera sinensis
16HamamelidaceaeAltingia chinensisAltingiaceaeLiquidambar chinensis
17HamamelidaceaeSemiliquidambar chingiiAltingiaceaeLiquidambar chingii
18HamamelidaceaeAltingia excelsaAltingiaceaeLiquidambar excelsa
19HamamelidaceaeLiquidambar formosanaAltingiaceaeLiquidambar formosana
20HamamelidaceaeAltingia gracilipesAltingiaceaeLiquidambar gracilipes
21HamamelidaceaeAltingia yunnanensisAltingiaceaeLiquidambar yunnanensis
22AnacardiaceaeSpondias lakonensisAnacardiaceaeSpondias lakonensis Pierre
23AraliaceaeTupidanthus calyptratusAraliaceaeSchefflera pueckleri
24BignoniaceaeMayodendron igneumBignoniaceaeRadermachera ignea
25ClusiaceaeCalophyllum inophyllumCalophyllaceaeCalophyllum inophyllum
26ClusiaceaeMesua ferreaCalophyllaceaeMesua ferrea
27UlmaceaeAphananthe asperaCannabaceaeAphananthe aspera
28UlmaceaeCeltis biondiiCannabaceaeCeltis biondii
29UlmaceaeCeltis bungeanaCannabaceaeCeltis bungeana
30UlmaceaeCeltis julianaeCannabaceaeCeltis julianae
31UlmaceaeCeltis philippensisCannabaceaeCeltis philippensis
32UlmaceaeCeltis sinensisCannabaceaeCeltis sinensis
33UlmaceaeCeltis tetrandraCannabaceaeCeltis tetrandra
34UlmaceaeCeltis vandervoetianaCannabaceaeCeltis vandervoetiana
35UlmaceaeGironniera subaequalisCannabaceaeGironniera subaequalis
36UlmaceaePteroceltis tatarinowiiCannabaceaePteroceltis tatarinowii
37UlmaceaeTrema angustifoliaCannabaceaeTrema angustifolia
38UlmaceaeTrema orientalisCannabaceaeTrema orientalis
39IcacinaceaeGonocaryum lobbianumCardiopteridaceaeGonocaryum lobbianum
40CombretaceaeAnogeissus acuminataCombretaceaeTerminalia phillyreifolia
41AlangiaceaeAlangium chinenseCornaceaeAlangium chinense
42AlangiaceaeAlangium kurziiCornaceaeAlangium kurzii
43AlangiaceaeAlangium kurzii var. handeliiCornaceaeAlangium kurzii var. handelii
44AlangiaceaeAlangium platanifolium var. trilobatumCornaceaeAlangium platanifolium var. trilobatum
45DipterocarpaceaeParashorea chinensisDipterocarpaceaeShorea chinensis
46ElaeocarpaceaeElaeocarpus decipiensElaeocarpaceaeElaeocarpus zollingeri
47SaxifragaceaePolyosma cambodianaEscalloniaceaePolyosma cambodiana
48EuphorbiaceaeTrevia nudifloraEuphorbiaceaeMallotus nudiflorus
49FabaceaeCaesalpinia decapetalaFabaceaeBiancaea decapetala
50FabaceaeCaesalpinia sappanFabaceaeBiancaea sappan
51FabaceaeAcacia catechuFabaceaeSenegalia catechu
52FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis bellaFagaceaeQuercus bella
53FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis blakeiFagaceaeQuercus blakei
54FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis championiiFagaceaeQuercus championii
55FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis chungiiFagaceaeQuercus chungii
56FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis delavayiFagaceaeQuercus delavayi
57FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis gambleanaFagaceaeQuercus gambleana
58FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis gilvaFagaceaeQuercus gilva
59FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis glaucaFagaceaeQuercus glauca
60FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis helferianaFagaceaeQuercus helferiana
61FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis huiFagaceaeQuercus hui
62FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis longinuxFagaceaeQuercus longinux
63FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis myrsinifoliaFagaceaeQuercus myrsinifolia
64FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis neglectaFagaceaeQuercus neglecta
65FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis oxyodonFagaceaeQuercus oxyodon
66FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis pachylomaFagaceaeQuercus pachyloma
67FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis patelliformisFagaceaeQuercus patelliformis
68FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis glaucoidesFagaceaeQuercus schottkyana
69FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis sessilifoliaFagaceaeQuercus sessilifolia
70FagaceaeCyclobalanopsis tenuicupulaFagaceaeQuercus tenuicupula
71FagaceaeFormanodendron doichangensisFagaceaeTrigonobalanus doichangensis
72AucubaceaeAucuba chinensisGarryaceaeAucuba chinensis
73SaxifragaceaeDeutzia crenataHydrangeaceaeDeutzia crenata
74SaxifragaceaeHydrangea asperaHydrangeaceaeHydrangea aspera
75SaxifragaceaeHydrangea bretschneideriHydrangeaceaeHydrangea bretschneideri
76SaxifragaceaeHydrangea paniculataHydrangeaceaeHydrangea paniculata
77ClusiaceaeCratoxylum cochinchinenseHypericaceaeCratoxylum cochinchinense
78ClusiaceaeCratoxylum formosum subsp. pruniflorumHypericaceaeCratoxylum formosum subsp. pruniflorum
79ClusiaceaeHypericum monogynumHypericaceaeHypericum monogynum
80SaxifragaceaeItea chinensisIteaceaeItea chinensis
81ErythroxylaceaeIxonanthes reticulataIxonanthaceaeIxonanthes reticulata
82RhoipteleaceaeRhoiptelea chilianthaJuglandaceaeRhoiptelea chiliantha
83VerbenaceaeCallicarpa arboreaLamiaceaeCallicarpa arborea
84VerbenaceaeCallicarpa japonicaLamiaceaeCallicarpa japonica
85VerbenaceaeCallicarpa macrophyllaLamiaceaeCallicarpa macrophylla
86VerbenaceaeClerodendrum mandarinorumLamiaceaeClerodendrum mandarinorum
87VerbenaceaeClerodendrum trichotomumLamiaceaeClerodendrum trichotomum
88VerbenaceaeGmelina arboreaLamiaceaeGmelina arborea
89VerbenaceaeGmelina chinensisLamiaceaeGmelina chinensis
90VerbenaceaeGmelina hainanensisLamiaceaeGmelina hainanensis
91VerbenaceaePremna szemaoensisLamiaceaePremna szemaoensis
92VerbenaceaeTectona grandisLamiaceaeTectona grandis
93VerbenaceaeVitex pierreanaLamiaceaeVitex pierreana
94VerbenaceaeVitex quinataLamiaceaeVitex quinata
95VerbenaceaeVitex tripinnataLamiaceaeVitex tripinnata
96LauraceaeCinnamomum japonicumLauraceaeCinnamomum insularimontanum
97LauraceaeNeolitsea aurataLauraceaeNeolitsea sericea var. aurata
98MagnoliaceaeYulania amoenaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia amoena
99MagnoliaceaeManglietia aromaticaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia aromatica
100MagnoliaceaeMichelia bailloniiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia baillonii
101MagnoliaceaeYulania campbelliiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia campbellii
102MagnoliaceaeAlcimandra cathcartiiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia cathcartii
103MagnoliaceaeMichelia chapensisMagnoliaceaeMagnolia chapensis
104MagnoliaceaeMichelia compressaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia compressa
105MagnoliaceaeManglietia coniferaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia conifera
106MagnoliaceaeMichelia crassipesMagnoliaceaeMagnolia crassipes
107MagnoliaceaeYulania cylindricaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia cylindrica
108MagnoliaceaeLirianthe delavayiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia delavayi
109MagnoliaceaeYulania denudataMagnoliaceaeMagnolia denudata
110MagnoliaceaeMichelia wilsoniiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia ernestii
111MagnoliaceaeMichelia figoMagnoliaceaeMagnolia figo
112MagnoliaceaeMichelia floribundaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia floribunda
113MagnoliaceaeManglietia fordianaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia fordiana
114MagnoliaceaeManglietia forrestiiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia fordiana var. forrestii
115MagnoliaceaeManglietia fordiana var. hainanensisMagnoliaceaeMagnolia fordiana var. hainanensis
116MagnoliaceaeMichelia foveolataMagnoliaceaeMagnolia foveolata
117MagnoliaceaeOyama globosaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia globosa
118MagnoliaceaeLirianthe henryiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia henryi
119MagnoliaceaeMichelia hypolampraMagnoliaceaeMagnolia hypolampra
120MagnoliaceaeParakmeria kachirachiraiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia kachirachirai
121MagnoliaceaeManglietia kwangtungensisMagnoliaceaeMagnolia kwangtungensis
122MagnoliaceaeYulania liliifloraMagnoliaceaeMagnolia liliflora
123MagnoliaceaeParakmeria lotungensisMagnoliaceaeMagnolia lotungensis
124MagnoliaceaeMichelia macclureiMagnoliaceaeMagnolia macclurei
125MagnoliaceaeMichelia maudiaeMagnoliaceaeMagnolia maudiae
126MagnoliaceaeMichelia odoraMagnoliaceaeMagnolia odora
127MagnoliaceaeHoupoëa officinalisMagnoliaceaeMagnolia officinalis
128MagnoliaceaeYulania sargentianaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia sargentiana
129MagnoliaceaeYulania sprengeriMagnoliaceaeMagnolia sprengeri
130MagnoliaceaeMichelia x albaMagnoliaceaeMagnolia x alba
131TiliaceaeBerrya cordifoliaMalvaceaeBerrya cordifolia
132BombacaceaeBombax ceibaMalvaceaeBombax ceiba
133TiliaceaeBurretiodendron esquiroliiMalvaceaeBurretiodendron esquirolii
134TiliaceaeExcentrodendron tonkinenseMalvaceaeBurretiodendron hsienmu
135TiliaceaeExcentrodendron obconicumMalvaceaeBurretiodendron obconicum
136BombacaceaeCeiba pentandraMalvaceaeCeiba pentandra
137TiliaceaeColona floribundaMalvaceaeColona floribunda
138TiliaceaeColona thoreliiMalvaceaeColona thorelii
139SterculiaceaeEriolaena spectabilisMalvaceaeEriolaena spectabilis
140SterculiaceaeFirmiana colorataMalvaceaeFirmiana colorata
141SterculiaceaeFirmiana majorMalvaceaeFirmiana major
142SterculiaceaeFirmiana simplexMalvaceaeFirmiana simplex
143TiliaceaeGrewia eriocarpaMalvaceaeGrewia eriocarpa
144SterculiaceaeHeritiera angustataMalvaceaeHeritiera angustata
145SterculiaceaeHeritiera littoralisMalvaceaeHeritiera littoralis
146SterculiaceaeHeritiera parvifoliaMalvaceaeHeritiera parvifolia
147TiliaceaeMicrocos chungiiMalvaceaeMicrocos chungii
148TiliaceaeMicrocos paniculataMalvaceaeMicrocos paniculata
149BombacaceaeOchroma lagopusMalvaceaeOchroma lagopus
150SterculiaceaePterospermum heterophyllumMalvaceaePterospermum heterophyllum
151SterculiaceaePterospermum lanceifoliumMalvaceaePterospermum lanceifolium
152SterculiaceaePterospermum menglunenseMalvaceaePterospermum menglunense
153SterculiaceaePterygota alataMalvaceaePterygota alata
154SterculiaceaeReevesia pubescensMalvaceaeReevesia pubescens
155SterculiaceaeReevesia pycnanthaMalvaceaeReevesia pycnantha
156SterculiaceaeSterculia hainanensisMalvaceaeSterculia hainanensis
157SterculiaceaeSterculia lanceolataMalvaceaeSterculia lanceolata
158SterculiaceaeSterculia monosperma var. monospermaMalvaceaeSterculia monosperma var. monosperma
159SterculiaceaeSterculia pexaMalvaceaeSterculia pexa
160SterculiaceaeSterculia villosaMalvaceaeSterculia villosa
161TiliaceaeTilia amurensisMalvaceaeTilia amurensis
162TiliaceaeTilia chinensisMalvaceaeTilia chinensis
163TiliaceaeTilia mandshuricaMalvaceaeTilia mandshurica
164TiliaceaeTilia miquelianaMalvaceaeTilia miqueliana
165TiliaceaeTilia paucicostataMalvaceaeTilia paucicostata
166TiliaceaeTilia tuanMalvaceaeTilia tuan
167IcacinaceaeApodytes dimidiataMetteniusaceaeApodytes dimidiata
168IcacinaceaePlatea latifoliaMetteniusaceaePlatea latifolia
169IcacinaceaePlatea parvifoliaMetteniusaceaePlatea parvifolia
170MyricaceaeMyrica esculentaMyricaceaeMorella esculenta
171MyricaceaeMyrica rubraMyricaceaeMorella rubra
172MastixiaceaeDiplopanax stachyanthusNyssaceaeDiplopanax stachyanthus
173ScrophulariaceaePaulownia catalpifoliaPaulowniaceaePaulownia catalpifolia
174ScrophulariaceaePaulownia elongataPaulowniaceaePaulownia elongata
175ScrophulariaceaePaulownia fargesiiPaulowniaceaePaulownia fargesii
176ScrophulariaceaePaulownia fortuneiPaulowniaceaePaulownia fortunei
177ScrophulariaceaePaulownia kawakamiiPaulowniaceaePaulownia kawakamii
178ScrophulariaceaePaulownia tomentosaPaulowniaceaePaulownia tomentosa
179TheaceaeAdinandra formosanaPentaphylacaceaeAdinandra formosana
180TheaceaeAdinandra hainanensisPentaphylacaceaeAdinandra hainanensis
181TheaceaeAdinandra millettiiPentaphylacaceaeAdinandra millettii
182TheaceaeAnneslea fragransPentaphylacaceaeAnneslea fragrans
183TheaceaeCleyera japonicaPentaphylacaceaeCleyera japonica
184TheaceaeEurya alataPentaphylacaceaeEurya alata
185TheaceaeEurya chinensisPentaphylacaceaeEurya chinensis
186TheaceaeEurya macartneyiPentaphylacaceaeEurya macartneyi
187TheaceaeEurya megatrichocarpaPentaphylacaceaeEurya megatrichocarpa
188TheaceaeEurya trichocarpaPentaphylacaceaeEurya trichocarpa
189TheaceaeTernstroemia gymnantheraPentaphylacaceaeTernstroemia gymnanthera
190TheaceaeTernstroemia japonicaPentaphylacaceaeTernstroemia japonica
191TheaceaeTernstroemia kwangtungensisPentaphylacaceaeTernstroemia kwangtungensis
192TheaceaeTernstroemia simaoensisPentaphylacaceaeTernstroemia simaoensis
193EuphorbiaceaeAntidesma japonicumPhyllanthaceaeAntidesma japonicum
194EuphorbiaceaeAporosa dioicaPhyllanthaceaeAporosa octandra var. octandra
195EuphorbiaceaeAporosa yunnanensisPhyllanthaceaeAporosa yunnanensis
196EuphorbiaceaeBaccaurea ramifloraPhyllanthaceaeBaccaurea ramiflora
197EuphorbiaceaeBischofia javanicaPhyllanthaceaeBischofia javanica
198EuphorbiaceaeBischofia polycarpaPhyllanthaceaeBischofia polycarpa
199EuphorbiaceaeBridelia balansaePhyllanthaceaeBridelia balansae
200EuphorbiaceaeBridelia retusaPhyllanthaceaeBridelia retusa
201EuphorbiaceaeCleistanthus sumatranusPhyllanthaceaeCleistanthus sumatranus
202EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus emblicaPhyllanthaceaePhyllanthus emblica
203EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus flexuosusPhyllanthaceaePhyllanthus flexuosus
204EuphorbiaceaeGlochidion puberumPhyllanthaceaePhyllanthus puberus
205EuphorbiaceaeGlochidion wrightiiPhyllanthaceaePhyllanthus wrightii
206MyrsinaceaeArdisia crenataPrimulaceaeArdisia crenata
207MyrsinaceaeArdisia sieboldiiPrimulaceaeArdisia sieboldii
208MyrsinaceaeArdisia solanaceaPrimulaceaeArdisia solanacea
209MyrsinaceaeArdisia thyrsifloraPrimulaceaeArdisia thyrsiflora
210MyrsinaceaeMaesa japonicaPrimulaceaeMaesa japonica
211MyrsinaceaeMyrsine faberiPrimulaceaeMyrsine faberi
212MyrsinaceaeMyrsine seguiniiPrimulaceaeMyrsine seguinii
213MyrsinaceaeMyrsine semiserrataPrimulaceaeMyrsine semiserrata
214EuphorbiaceaeDrypetes congestifloraPutranjivaceaeDrypetes congestiflora
215EuphorbiaceaeDrypetes hainanensisPutranjivaceaeDrypetes hainanensis
216EuphorbiaceaeDrypetes perreticulataPutranjivaceaeDrypetes perreticulata
217RhamnaceaeRhamnus ussuriensisRhamnaceaeRhamnus davurica var. nipponica
218RosaceaeStephanandra incisaRosaceaeNeillia incisa
219RosaceaePhotinia beauverdianaRosaceaePourthiaea beauverdiana
220RosaceaePygeum topengiiRosaceaePrunus arborea var. montana
221RosaceaeArmeniaca vulgarisRosaceaePrunus armeniaca
222RosaceaeCerasus campanulataRosaceaePrunus campanulata
223RosaceaeCerasus cerasoidesRosaceaePrunus cerasoides
224RosaceaeCerasus conradinaeRosaceaePrunus conradinae
225RosaceaeCerasus japonica var. glandulosaRosaceaePrunus glandlosa
226RosaceaePadus grayanaRosaceaePrunus grayana
227RosaceaeCerasus humilisRosaceaePrunus humilis
228RosaceaePadus maackiiRosaceaePrunus maackii
229RosaceaeArmeniaca mume var. mumeRosaceaePrunus mume
230RosaceaePadus avium var. pubescensRosaceaePrunus padus var. pubescens
231RosaceaeCerasus patentipilaRosaceaePrunus patentipila
232RosaceaeAmygdalus persicaRosaceaePrunus persica
233RosaceaeLaurocerasus phaeostictaRosaceaePrunus phaeosticta
234RosaceaeCerasus pseudocerasusRosaceaePrunus pseudocerasus
235RosaceaeCerasus serrulata var. serrulataRosaceaePrunus serrulata
236RosaceaeLaurocerasus spinulosaRosaceaePrunus spinulosa
237RosaceaeLaurocerasus zippelianaRosaceaePrunus zippeliana
238RosaceaeChaenomeles sinensisRosaceaePseudocydonia sinensis
239RosaceaeSorbus pteridophyllaRosaceaeSorbus pteridophylla
240RubiaceaeHaldina cordifoliaRubiaceaeAdina cordifolia
241SabiaceaeMeliosma rhoifoliaSabiaceaeMeliosma oldhamii var. rhoifolia
242FlacourtiaceaeCarrierea calycinaSalicaceaeCarrierea calycina
243FlacourtiaceaeCasearia kurziiSalicaceaeCasearia kurzii
244FlacourtiaceaeCasearia membranaceaSalicaceaeCasearia membranacea
245FlacourtiaceaeCasearia velutinaSalicaceaeCasearia velutina
246FlacourtiaceaeFlacourtia mollisSalicaceaeFlacourtia mollis
247FlacourtiaceaeFlacourtia rukamSalicaceaeFlacourtia rukam
248FlacourtiaceaeHomalium ceylanicumSalicaceaeHomalium ceylanicum
249FlacourtiaceaeHomalium cochinchinenseSalicaceaeHomalium cochinchinense
250FlacourtiaceaeHomalium phanerophlebiumSalicaceaeHomalium phanerophlebium
251FlacourtiaceaeIdesia polycarpaSalicaceaeIdesia polycarpa
252FlacourtiaceaeItoa orientalisSalicaceaeItoa orientalis
253SalicaceaePopulus maximowicziiSalicaceaePopulus suaveolens
254SalicaceaeChosenia arbutifoliaSalicaceaeSalix arbutifolia
255SalicaceaeSalix matsudanaSalicaceaeSalix babylonica var. matsudana
256SalicaceaeSalix raddeanaSalicaceaeSalix caprea
257SalicaceaeSalix maximowicziiSalicaceaeSalix cardiophylla
258FlacourtiaceaeXylosma congestaSalicaceaeXylosma congesta
259FlacourtiaceaeXylosma controversaSalicaceaeXylosma controversa
260AceraceaeAcer amplum subsp. catalpifoliumSapindaceaeAcer amplum subsp. catalpifolium
261AceraceaeAcer buergerianumSapindaceaeAcer buergerianum
262AceraceaeAcer caesiumSapindaceaeAcer caesium
263AceraceaeAcer campbelliiSapindaceaeAcer campbellii
264AceraceaeAcer chingiiSapindaceaeAcer chingii
265AceraceaeAcer cordatumSapindaceaeAcer cordatum
266AceraceaeAcer coriaceifoliumSapindaceaeAcer coriaceifolium
267AceraceaeAcer davidiiSapindaceaeAcer davidii
268AceraceaeAcer davidii subsp. grosseriSapindaceaeAcer davidii subsp. grosseri
269AceraceaeDipteronia sinensisSapindaceaeAcer dielsii
270AceraceaeAcer erianthumSapindaceaeAcer erianthum
271AceraceaeAcer fabriSapindaceaeAcer fabri
272AceraceaeAcer flabellatumSapindaceaeAcer flabellatum
273AceraceaeAcer laxiflorumSapindaceaeAcer laxiflorum
274AceraceaeAcer mandshuricumSapindaceaeAcer mandshuricum
275AceraceaeAcer oblongiumSapindaceaeAcer oblongium
276AceraceaeAcer oliverianumSapindaceaeAcer oliverianum
277AceraceaeAcer palmatumSapindaceaeAcer palmatum
278AceraceaeAcer pictum subsp. monoSapindaceaeAcer pictum subsp. mono
279AceraceaeAcer pilosumSapindaceaeAcer pilosum
280AceraceaeAcer sterculiaceum subsp. franchetiiSapindaceaeAcer sterculiaceum subsp. franchetii
281AceraceaeAcer sycopseoidesSapindaceaeAcer sycopseoides
282AceraceaeAcer tegmentosumSapindaceaeAcer tegmentosum
283AceraceaeAcer triflorumSapindaceaeAcer triflorum
284AceraceaeAcer truncatumSapindaceaeAcer truncatum
285HippocastanaceaeAesculus assamicaSapindaceaeAesculus assamica
286HippocastanaceaeAesculus chinensisSapindaceaeAesculus chinensis
287HippocastanaceaeAesculus chinensis var. wilsoniiSapindaceaeAesculus chinensis var. wilsonii
288HippocastanaceaeHandeliodendron bodinieriSapindaceaeHandeliodendron bodinieri
289SapindaceaeSapindus saponariaSapindaceaeSapindus mukorossi
290IlliciaceaeIllicium henryiSchisandraceaeIllicium henryi
291IlliciaceaeIllicium majusSchisandraceaeIllicium majus
292IlliciaceaeIllicium simonsiiSchisandraceaeIllicium simonsii
293IlliciaceaeIllicium verumSchisandraceaeIllicium verum
294OlacaceaeSchoepfia chinensisSchoepfiaceaeSchoepfia chinensis
295OlacaceaeSchoepfia jasminodoraSchoepfiaceaeSchoepfia jasminodora
296StaphyleaceaeTurpinia pomiferaStaphyleaceaeDalrympelea pomiera
297StaphyleaceaeEuscaphis japonicaStaphyleaceaeStaphylea japonica
298IcacinaceaeGomphandra sp.StemonuraceaeGomphandra sp.
299SymplocaceaeSymplocos paniculataSymplocaceaeSymplocos chinensis
300SymplocaceaeSymplocos lucidaSymplocaceaeSymplocos theifolia
301TheaceaeSchima superbaTheaceaeSchima noronhae
302TetracentraceaeTetracentron sinenseTrochodendraceaeTetracentron sinense
303AdoxaceaeViburnum amplifoliumViburnaceaeViburnum amplifolium
304AdoxaceaeViburnum cylindricumViburnaceaeViburnum cylindricum
305AdoxaceaeViburnum odoratissimumViburnaceaeViburnum odoratissimum
306VitaceaeAmpelopsis cantoniensisVitaceaeNekemias cantoniensis

6.  References

  1)   Qin H. et al. 2017. Threatened Species List of China’s Higher Plants (中国高等植物受威胁物种名录). Biodiversity Sci. 25 (7): 696-744 (in Chinese and English).

  2)   Zheng W. J. (4 vols.) 1983, 1985, 1997, 2004. Atlas of Chinese Trees (Sylva Sinica 中国树木志) (in Chinese).

  3)   Flora of China: http://www.efloras.org/browse.aspx?flora_id=2 (accessed 28 September 2021).

  4)   Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: https://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/welcome.html (accessed 28 September 2021).

  5)   Correction of common names and unification of pinyin used for plants in ‘Flora of China’ (in Chinese). http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?filename=ZKYS200608001026&dbcode=CPFD&dbname=CPFD2010 (accessed 28 September 2021).

  6)   Yonekura K. 2019. Updated syllabus of vascular plant familiesbased on phylogeny-based system with list of genera for Japanese users (新維管束植物分類表). Hokuryukan Co. Ltd. Tokyo, (in Japanese).

  7)   Richter H. G., Grosser D., Heinz I. and Gasson P. E. 2004. IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Softwood Identification. IAWA J. 25(1): 1–70.

  8)   Wheeler E. A., Baas, P. and Gasson, P. E. 1989. IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 10(3): 219–332.

  9)   Cheng J., Yang J. and Liu P. 1992. “Wood Atlas in China, 中国木材志” (in Chinese).

 10)   Corkhill T. 1979. The Complete Dictionary of Wood - Authoritative and Comprehensive: 10,000 terms relating to wood and its use, explained and clarified, 1,000 illustrations. New York, Dorset Press. P. 658.

 11)   Mertz M., Itoh T. 2007. “The Study of Buddhist Sculptures from Japan and China Based on Wood Identification,” in Janet G. Douglas et al., (eds.) Scientific Research on the Sculptural Arts of Asia: Proceedings of the Third Forbes Symposium at the Freer Gallery of Art. London: Archetype Publications. p. 200, (198-204).

 12)   Mertz M., Itoh T. 2010. “A Study of the Wood Species of 73 Deity Sculptures of the Hunan Province, from the Patrice Fava Collection”, in Alain Arrault (ed.), Religions and local society - Interdisciplinary Studies on the Central Region of Hunan, Cahiers d’Extrême - Asie 19, Kyoto, (EFEO). pp. 192-94, (183-214).

Takao ITOH

II. Construction of tree distribution maps in China

1.  Introduction

Maps of tree distribution in China were published in the past, for instance, in “Atlas of Woody Plants in China” (1), in “Higher Plants of China” (2), and in the “Plant Science Data Center” (3). However, it remains unclear whether the tree distribution status is native or cultivated in these published maps. Here, we provide county-level distribution maps for representative species included in our database with a primary objective to present their natural distributions in China. We categorize the maps into three statuses in the description of “General” for the corresponding species as follows:


- Native:

Maps show the natural (more accurately, potentially natural) habitat of tree species in China. Information on place of native distribution of these tree species can be easily obtained from data sources. Most maps provided in our database are categorized as “Native”.


- Cultivated: Maps of cultivated species native to China.

Maps show the distribution of tree species which are native, but widely cultivated in China, e.g., fruit tree species of the Rosaceae family and commercial timber tree species such as Morus alba, Sophora japonica, etc. For these species, natural and cultivated distribution are often mixed or sometimes only the cultivated distribution is recorded in data sources.


- Introduced and cultivated:

Introduced and cultivated is applied to those species that are introduced from other countries and cultivated in China.


2.  Data collection

The distribution data were collected following a two-step procedure. We first collected the province-level distribution of each species from two main databases as shown in Table 5. Second, we searched for the county-level distributions from provincial flora (main databases) and other available sources (Table 6). It is noted that some provincial flora had not been completely published by the time of data collection, especially the “Flora of Gansu” (which is supposed to be in eight volumes, but only one volume had been published when we initiated the work), the “Flora of Jiangxi”, the “Flora of Hunan”, and the “Flora of Sichuan”. To fill this information gap, we referred to the “Plant Science Data Center” (3) which provides locations from which plant specimens were collected in the past, covering most parts of China.

The provincial-level distributions in our database covers 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, and 4 municipalities in China. Hong Kong and Macau are two special administrative regions, which are also on the provincial level administratively; however, they are relatively small and highly modernized with little forest cover. Therefore, we do not describe the tree distribution for these two regions.

The county-level distribution includes counties, autonomous counties, county-level cities, banners*, autonomous banners and city districts (or cities). City districts at a county-level were frequently combined into one “city” to facilitate data collection and map edition. Four municipalities, i.e., Beijing City, Chongqing City, Shanghai City and Tianjin City, are also called “city” in China. We treated Beijing City, Shanghai City and Tianjin City as “cities” at county levels because they are relatively small and highly urbanized. By contrast, the Chongqing City was considered at the “provincial level” for its vast area.

*: the autonomous administrative division is exclusively used in Nei Mongol, China

Table 5. Data sources for province-level distribution.

  Name Chinese Name Reference
1 Scientific Database of China Plant Species 中国植物物种信息数据库 (4)
2 Flora of China 中国植物志英文版 (5)

Table 6. Data sources for county-level distribution.

 Province (Chinese)*  Local flora (Chinese)Reference
1Anhui Province ( 安徽省)Flora of Anhui (安徽植物志)(6)
2Fujian Province (福建省)Flora of Fujian (福建植物志)(7)
3Gansu Province (甘肃省)Flora of Gansu (甘肃植物志)(8)
Flora Tsinlingensis (秦岭植物志)(9)
4Guangdong Province (广东省)Flora of Guangdong (广东植物志)(10)
5Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (广西壮族自治区)Exchange Platform of Guangxi Plan Information (广西植物资源信息共享平台)(11)
Flora of Guangxi (广西植物志)(12)
Sylva Guangxigensis (广西树木志)(13)
7Guizhou Province (贵州省)Flora of Guizhou (贵州植物志)(14)
8Hainan Province (海南省)Flora of Hainan (海南植物志)(15)
Flora of Guangdong (广东植物志)(10)
9Hebei Province (河北省) &Beijing City (北京市) &Tianjin City (天津市)Flora of Hebei (河北植物志)(16)
Woody Flora of Hebei (河北树木志)(17)
10Heilongjiang Province (黑龙江省)Flora of Heilongjiang (黑龙江植物志)(18)
Flora of Heilongjiang (黑龙江植物资源志)(19)
11Henan Province (河南省)Flora of Henan (河南植物志)(20)
12Hubei Province (湖北省)Flora of Hubei (湖北植物志)(21)
13Hunan Province (湖南省)Flora of Hunan (湖南植物志) (22)
Woody Flora of Hunan (湖南树木志) (23)
14Jiangsu Province (江苏省)&Shanghai City (上海市)Flora of Jiangsu (江苏植物志)(24)
Flora of Jiangsu, new version (江苏植物志, 新版)(25)
15Jiangxi Province (江西省)Flora of Jiangxi (江西植物志)(26)
Flora of Jiangxi, new version (江西植物志, 新版)(27)
16Jilin Province (吉林省)Iconographia Plantarum Lignosarum Jilinica (吉林树木图志) (28)
17Liaoning Province (辽宁省)Flora of Liaoning (辽宁植物志)(29)
18Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (内蒙古自治区)Flora of Nei Mongol (内蒙古植物志)(30)
19Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (宁夏回族自治区)Flora of Ningxia (宁夏植物志)(31)
20Qinghai Province (青海省)Flora of Qinghai (青海植物志)(32)
21Shaanxi Province (陕西省)Dendrologia Schensiensis (陕西树木志)(33)
Flora Tsinlingensis (秦岭植物志)(9)
22Shandong Province (山东省)Flora of Shandong (山东植物志)(34)
Woody Flora of Shandong (山东树木志)(35)
23Shanxi Province (山西省)Flora of Shanxi (山西植物志)(36)
24Sichuan Province (四川省) & Chongqing City (重庆市)Flora of Sichuan (四川植物志)(37)
Tree distribution in Sichuan (四川树木分布)(38)
25Taiwan (台湾省)Woody Flora of Taiwan (台湾树木志)(39)
Plants of Taiwan (台湾植物资讯整合查询系统)(40)
26Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (新疆维吾尔族自治区)Flora Xinjiang (新疆植物志)(41)
27Xizang Autonomous Region, or Tibet (西藏自治区)Flora of Xizang (西藏植物志)(42)
28Yunnan Province (云南省)Flora of Yunnan (云南植物志)(43)
29Zhejiang Province (浙江省)Flora of Zhejiang (浙江植物志)(44)
30Complementary sources to several provincesPlant Science Data Center (植物科学数据中心)(3)
*: Province refers to the province-level divisions that we focus on distribution maps , including provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities.


3.  Map edition

The process of constructing a distribution map consists of two steps, data collection and map edition, which will be explained below in the case of Wendlandia uvariifolia Hance (水锦树 <shui jin shu>).

Step 1: Data collection

Step 1.1 Province-level distribution

Data collection from ‘Scientific Database of China Plant Species’ (Fig. 2) and ‘Flora of China’.

Distributing provinces from the two data sources are the same, showing: Taiwan Province (台湾省), Guangdong Province (广东省), Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (广西壮族自治区), Hainan Province (海南省), Guizhou Province (贵州省), and Yunnan Province (云南省). Next, we collected county-level distribution in the corresponding provinces, and this is shown in Step 1.2.

Figure 2. Province-level data for Wendlandia uvariifolia Hance described in ‘Scientific Database of China Plant Species’.

Step 1.2 County-level distribution:

Data collection from ‘Flora of Guangdong’ (Fig. 3), ‘Exchange Platform of Guangxi Plant Information’, ‘Flora of Guizhou’, ‘Flora of Hainan’, ‘Plants of Taiwan’ and ‘Flora of Yunnan’. We obtained county-level distribution as shown below:

Guangdong (广东省) : Gaoyao (高要市), Xinyi (信宜市), Qingyuan (清远市), Guangzhou (广州市), Boluo (博罗县), Jiangmen (江门市), Xinxing (新兴县), Huaiji (怀集县), Fengkai (封开县), Nanhai (南海县), Yunfu (云浮市), Shunde (顺德市), and Zengcheng (增城市)

Guangxi (广西壮族自治区) : Whole region

Guizhou (贵州省) : Anlong (安龙县), Ceheng (册亨县), Wangmo (望谟县), and Luodian (罗甸县)

Hainan (海南省): Dongfang (东方市), Ledong (乐东黎族自治县), Sanya (三亚市), Danzhou (儋州市), Changjiang (昌江黎族自治县), Dingan (定安县), Lingshui (陵水黎族自治县), Qiongshan (琼山区、县), Baisha (白沙黎族自治县), and Baoting (保亭黎族苗族自治县)

Taiwan (台湾省): Whole province

Yunnan (云南省): Yanshan (砚山县), Maguan (马关县), Malipo (麻栗坡县), Xichou (西畴县), Funing (富宁县),Mengzi (蒙自县), Pingbian (屏边苗族自治县), Hekou (河口瑶族自治县), Simao (思茅市), and Mengla (勐腊县)

Figure 3. County-level data for Wendlandia uvariifolia Hance described in ‘Flora of Guangdong’

Step 2: Map edition

ArcGIS9.3 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.) is used for editing the maps based on the China’s latest administrative divisions from the data collected above.

Finally, the county-level distribution map of Wendlandia uvariifolia Hance is constructed, as shown in Fig. 4.

Figure 4. County-level distribution map constructed for Wendlandia uvariifolia Hance.


Please note that our data is based on distribution of provincial floras (see references), and much of this information was published for more than ten years old. Distribution of plant species may have changed in recent years due to the fast development and urbanization.

4.  References

  1)   Fang, J.Y., Wang, Z.H., Tang, R.Z., 2010. Atlas of woody plants in China: distribution and climate (中国木本植物分布图集). Higher Education Press, Beijing, volume: 1–3. (In Chinese and English).

  2)   Fu, L.G., 2012. Higher Plants of China (中国高等植物). Qingdao Press, Qingdao, volume: 1–14. (In Chinese)

  3)   Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Plant Science Data Center (植物科学数据中心). URL: https://www.plantplus.cn/cn. (In Chinese) (accessed: 10th April, 2022).

  4)   Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS. Scientific database of China plant species (中国植物物种信息数据库). URL: http://db.kib.ac.cn/CNFlora/HierarchicalSearch.aspx. (In Chinese) (accessed: 10th April, 2022).

  5)   Wu, Z.Y., Peter, H.R., 2013. Flora of China. URL: http://foc.iplant.cn/. (accessed: 10th April, 2022).

  6)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Anhui, 1982–2004. Flora of Anhui (安徽植物志). China Prospect Publishing House, Beijing, volume 1–5. (In Chinese)

  7)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Fujian, 1982–1993. Flora of Fujian (福建植物志). Fujian Science & Technology Publishing House, Fuzhou, volume 1–6. (In Chinese)

  8)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Gansu, 2005. Flora of Gansu (甘肃植物志). Gansu Science & Technology Publishing House, Lanzhou, volume 2. (In Chinese)

  9)   Northwest Institute of Botany, CAS, 1976. Flora Tsinlingensis (秦岭植物志) . Science Press, Beijing, volume 1. (In Chinese)

 10)   South China Botanical Garden, CAS, 1987–2011. Flora of Guangdong (广东植物志). Guangdong Science & Technology Press, volume 1–10. (In Chinese)

 11)   Gunagxi Institute of Botany, CAS, 1991–2011. Flora of Guangxi (广西植物志). Guangxi Science & Technology Publishing House, volume 1–3. (In Chinese)

 12)   Gunagxi Institute of Botany, CAS. Exchange Platform of Guangxi Plant Information (广西植物资源信息共享平台). URL: http://flora.gxib.cn/. Last access: 17th February, 2017. (In Chinese)

 13)   Guangxi Academy of Forestry, 2012–2015. Sylva Guangxigensis (广西树木志). China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, volume 1–3. (In Chinese)

 14)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Guizhou, 1982–2004. Flora of Guizhou (贵州植物志). Guizhou People’s Publishing House, Guiyang, volume 1–10. (In Chinese)

 15)   Guangdong Institute of Botany, CAS, 1965–1977. Flora of Hainan (海南植物志). Science Press, Beijing, volume 1–4. (In Chinese)

 16)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Hebei. Flora of Hebei (河北植物志). Heibei Science & Technology Publishing House, volume 1–4. (In Chinese)

 17)   Sun, L.Y., Ren, X.W., 1997. 孙立元, 任宪威. Woody Flora of Hebei (河北树木志). China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (In Chinese)

 18)   Zhou, Y.L., 1985–2003. Flora of Heilongjiang (黑龙江植物志). Northeast Forestry University Publishing House, Harbin, volume 1, 4–11. (In Chinese)

 19)   Zhou, Y.L., Nie, S.Q., Yuan, X.Y., Yang, F.J., 2003. Flora Heilongjiang (黑龙江植物志资源志). Northeast Forestry University Publishing House, Harbin. (In Chinese)

 20)   Ding, B.Z., Wang, S.Y, 1981–1998. Flora of Henan (河南植物志). Henan Science & Technology Publishing House, Zhengzhou, volume 1–3. (In Chinese)

 21)   Wuhan Botanical Garden, CAS, 2001–2002. Flora of Hubei (湖北植物志). Hubei Science & Technology Publishing House, Wuhan, volume 1–4. (In Chinese)

 22)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Hunan, 2004–2010. Flora of Hunan (湖南植物志). Hunan Science & Technology Publishing House, Changsha, volume 1–3. (In Chinese)

 23)   Qi, C.J., Lin, Q.Z., 2000. Woody Flora of Hunan (湖南树木志). Hunan Science & Technology Publishing House, Changsha. (In Chinese)

 24)   Jiangsu Institute of Botany, CAS, 1977–1982. Flora of Jiangsu (江苏植物志). Jiangsu People’s Publishing House, Nanjing, volume 1–2. (In Chinese)

 25)   Liu, Q.X., 2015. Flora of Jiangsu, new version (江苏植物志, 新版). Phoenix Science Press, Nanjing, volume 2. (In Chinese)

 26)   Jiangxi branch of CAS, 1960. Flora of Jiangxi (江西植物志). Jiangxi People’s Publishing House, Nanchang. (In Chinese)

 27)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Jiangxi, 1993–2014. Flora of Jiangxi, new version (江西植物志新版). China Science & Technology Press, Beijing, volume 1–3. (In Chinese)

 28)   Zhao, Y.T., 2009. Iconographia Plantarum Lignosarum Jilinica (吉林树木图志). China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (In Chinese)

 29)   Li, S.X., 1988–1991. Flora of Liaoning (辽宁植物志). Liaoning Science & Technology Publishing House, Shenyang, volume 1–2. (In Chinese)

 30)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Nei Mongol, 1977–1985. Flora of Nei Mongol (内蒙古植物志). Nei Mongol People’s Publishing House, Hohhot, volume 1–8. (In Chinese)

 31)   Ma, D.Z., Hu, F.X., Liu, H.L., 1986–1988. Flora of Ningxia (宁夏植物志). Ningxia People’s Publishing House, Yinchuan, volume 1–2. (In Chinese)

 32)   Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS, 1996–1999. Flora of Qinghai (青海植物志). Qinghai People’s Publishing House, Xining, volume 1–4. (In Chinese)

 33)   Niu, C.S., 1990. Dendrologia Schensiensis (陕西树木志). China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (In Chinese)

 34)   Chen, H.B., Zheng, Y.J., Li, F.Z., 1990–1997. Flora of Shandong (山东植物志). Qingdao Publishing House, Qingdao, volume 1–2. (In Chinese)

 35)   Editorial Committee of Woody Flora of Shandong, 1984. Woody Flora of Shandong (山东树木志). Shandong Science & Technology Publishing House, Jinan. (In Chinese)

 36)   Liu, T.W. et al., 1992–2004. Flora of Shaxi (山西植物志). China Science & Technology Press, Beijing, volume 1–5. (In Chinese)

 37)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Sichuan. Flora of Sichuan (四川植物志). Sichuan Science & Technology Publishing House, Chengdu, volume 1–17, 21. (In Chinese)

 38)   Yang, Z.Q., 1997. Tree distribution in Sichuan (四川树木分布). Guizhou Science & Technology Publishing House, Guiyang. (In Chinese)

 39)   Lyu, Y.J., L, F.Y., Ou, C.X., 1983. Woody Flora of Taiwan (台湾树木志). College of Agriculture, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung. (In Chinese)

 40)   Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University. Plants of Taiwan (台湾植物资讯整合查询系统). URL: https://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/. (In Chinese & English) (accessed 10th April, 2022).

 41)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Xinjiang, 1992–2004. Flora of Xinjiang (新疆植物志). Xinjiang Science & Technology Medical Publishing House, Urumqi, volume 1–2, 4–6. (In Chinese)

 42)   Integrated Scientific Expedition to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, CAS, 1983–1987. Flora of Xizang (西藏植物志). Science Press, Beijing, volume 1–5. (In Chinese)

 43)   Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS, 1977–2005. Flora of Yunnan (云南植物志). Science Press, Beijing, volume 1–19. (In Chinese)

 44)   Editorial Committee of Flora of Zhejiang, 1989–1993. Flora of Zhejiang (浙江植物志). Zhejiang Science & Technology Publishing House, Hangzhou, volume 1–7.

Feng WANG, Biao PAN and Takao ITOH

III. Progress of wood anatomy research in China

1.  Early history of wood anatomy research

The first publication of wood anatomy in China can be traced back to “Anatomical Characters and Identification of Formosan Woods” by Ryozo Kanehira in 1921 (1, Fig. 5a). The book consists of five chapters, the main one describing the anatomy of Formosan wood according to Bentham and Hooker's classification. The number of species investigated is 386, comprising of 226 genera and 66 families with microscopic photographs from 46 softwood and 290 hardwood species, which cover quite a number of tree species growing in Taiwan. About 10 years later, articles dealing with Chinese softwood and imported wood were published by Yao Tang (唐耀) in mainland China (2–4). Looking at the early historical trends in wood anatomy in mainland China, the most comprehensive reference is Tang’s “Chinese Wood Science, 中國木材學”, published in 1936 (5, Fig. 5b). This book contains both general and specific sections, the former focusing on wood anatomy and wood quality, and the latter on the commercial timber and systematic classification of Chinese wood. The author describes the anatomical characteristics of wood from 8 families, 24 genera and 48 species of gymnosperms, and from 54 families, 300 genera and 408 species of angiosperms, attached with 376 micrographs. Based on these contributions, Tang (1905–1998), may be considered a pioneer of wood anatomy in China. In 1938, he completed his doctoral thesis, entitled “Systematic Anatomy of the Woods of the Hamamelidaceae《金缕梅科木材系统解剖的研究》”, and received a PhD degree from Yale University, USA. Another scholar, Chen-Lee Lee (1918–2009), was a distinguished Chinese structural botanist, who joined the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) in 1947, received a PhD degree in 1953 with the thesis, entitled “Reproductive morphology of Ginkgo biloba” and returned to Peking University as a professor in 1957. He was also an expert in wood anatomy and have contributed to the early progress of wood anatomy in China. Comparative anatomical studies of vessels in Magnoliaceae was published by Lee and his disciple, Wu in 1988 (6).

Soon after the discovery of the living tree of Metasequoia glyptostroboides in Hubei (at that time, Sichuan province) in 1946, anatomical studies of this species were published by Li in 1948 (7). In the same year, properties of the living fossil wood were studied by Liang et al. (8). In the 1950s and 1960s, articles and books on wood anatomy were published for the uses of domestic timbers (9–12, Fig. 5c). Publications on wood anatomical research, focusing on tropical and subtropical wood in China, was also published in the early 1970s and 1980s (13–15, Fig. 5d, 5e). Around this time, another valuable books, “Wood science, 木材学” was published by Cheng (16, Fig. 6a). This book describes progress in wood science from the 1960s to the early 1980s, in China and is divided into four parts - wood structure, chemical properties of wood, physical properties of wood, and mechanical properties. The section on “Wood structure” has five chapters - tree growth and structure, plant cell wall, wood identification, wood grain, and wood structure and utilization. The section on “Chemical properties of wood” has four chapters - chemical composition of cell walls, extractives, chemical properties of wood and bark. The section on “Physical properties of wood” has six chapters - wood and moisture, wood density, thermo-chemistry of wood, electrical property of wood, acoustic property of wood, and air permeability of wood. The section on “Mechanical properties of wood” has four chapters - basic concepts, compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear strength of wood. As seen from the contents in this book, it covers almost all field of wood science, with the first section on “Wood structure” focusing only on the description of wood anatomy.

Figure 5a (1).

Figure 5b (5).

Figure 5c (12).

Figure 5d (13).

Figure 5d (14).

2.  Rapid progress of wood anatomy research in the 1980s and 1990s

The study of wood anatomy in China advanced rapidly in the 1980s to the 1990s, and many of these studies focused on wood identification (17–27), in parallel with the increasing demand for domestic and imported timbers. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these studies deal with region-specific trees in different provinces of China (18–22, 24, 26, 27, Fig. 6b, 6c, 6d, 7a, 7b and 7c).

In the 80s and 90s of the last century a series of six papers, “Wood Anatomy of Trees and Shrubs from China were published in the IAWA Bulletin and IAWA Journal, containing detailed anatomical descriptions, identification keys, and micrographs of Oleaceae (28), Theaceae (29), Rosaceae (30), Ulmaceae (31), Anacardiaceae (33), Magnoliaceae (34).

Figure 6a (16).

Figure 6b (20).

Figure 6c (21).

Figure 6d (22).

Figure 7a (24).

Figure 7b (26).

Figure 7c (27).

Figure 7d (32).

More recently, Cheng, Yang and Liu published a book entitled, “Wood Atlas in China, 中国木材志” in 1992 (32, Fig. 7d). This book includes the following contents.

Wood Anatomical features and uses (pp.1–700)
I Gymnospermae
    1–7 sections (Seven families)
II Angiospermae
    8–94 sections (87 families)
Principal uses of wood (pp. 701–752)
Plates of photomicrographs (196 Plates, 392 species)

As can be seen from the contents, this book exclusively describes the anatomical characteristics of Chinese wood attached with micrographs. It includes anatomical descriptions of 36 softwood species and 315 hardwood species. It also includes micrographs, each with the three different planes, cross, radial and tangential sections of wood specimens from 52 softwood and 240 hardwood species. This book provides a detailed description of the anatomy of various species of Chinese wood. We believe this book is an excellent source for researchers interested in wood anatomy and wood identification of Chinese trees. Unfortunately, this book is sold out and not available anymore.

Figure 8a (35).

Figure 8b (37).

Figure 8c (38).

Figure 8d (39).

In the 1990s, the researchers of the Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, was actively involved in sharing information on wood anatomy of Southeast Asian, African and Latin American trees (35, 37, 38, Fig.8a, 8b, 8c). In 1995, wood atlas of local tree species in Shanxi was published by Ke et al. (36). In 1999, wood anatomical illustrations from Yunnan were published in three volumes, with not only micrographs, but also colored images of leaves and branches, and real veneers attached (39, Fig. 8d). A few years later, microscopic features and photomicrographs showing properties of wood from the Northeast district in China were published as a part of a handbook by Liu et al. (40). Zhou and Jiang published an informative book, the “Wood anatomy and ultrastructure of gymnospermous woods in China” in 1994 (41, Fig. 9a). In 1995, Professor Shu Ming Wu, of Nankai University, organized the first ‘International Wood Anatomical Symposium’ supported by IAWA in China, and published the short reports of the presenters under the title of “Wood Research 1995” (42). With the increase of wood anatomy researchers in China, Professor Biao Pan, of Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing China, with the support of IAWA and Jiangsu Provincial People’s Government organized the 8th Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference in Nanjing in 2013, following this conference, the regional organization of IAWA-China Group was formed, which continues to hold its annual meeting every year.

Figure 9a (41).

Figure 9b (45).

Figure 9c (46).

Figure 9d (47).

Figure 10a (48).

Figure 10b (49).

Figure 10c (50).

Figure 10d (51).

3.  Recent progress of wood anatomy research and future prospects

With increasing demand for traditional furniture made of rosewood (“Hongmu” in Chinese), wood scientists are often requested for wood identification from furniture companies these days. “Rosewood” furniture is not only traditional but also a major part of Chinese culture, occupying a large commercial sector in China. Consequently, there is a continuous demand for wood identification from “rosewood” and related wood species. Although our scrutiny for publications on rosewood is limited, a booklet titled, “National Standard of Rosewood (Hongmu) in China” (43) and its revised edition (44) is highly recommended. This booklet includes a list of “Rosewood” species, their origin, colored images of “Rosewood”, their anatomical features, and microscopic images. In response to the demand for rosewood furniture, Xu (2008) published a “Wood Identification Atlas”, containing woods introduced from many regions as substitutes for rosewood (45, Fig. 9b); a similar wood identification handbook was published in 2010 (46, Fig. 9c). In addition, with the increase in imported wood from abroad, a lot of information on wood anatomy of “rosewood (Hongmu)”, rare species, and introduced wood species has been published. A primary color Illustrated book of imported woods (47, Fig. 9d), a book on wood anatomical characteristics of globally important trees (48, Fig. 10a) and an illustrated book identifying the world’s valuable woods (49, Fig. 10b) were published, introducing a large number of commercial wood species, with information on distribution, local and scientific names, properties, uses and photographs of logs, boards, and lumbers. On the other hand, for basic information on wood anatomy of coniferous wood, Jiang et al. published an informative book, entitled “Atlas of gymnosperm woods of China” which covers many coniferous trees growing in China. This book contains high quality micrographs and tree distribution maps (50, Fig. 10c).

With increasing demands for the protection of CITES-listed trees, Yin and Jiang (2015) have published an illustrated reference book describing wood identification methods for these species, which can be recommended as a laboratory instruction manual for students and young researchers (51, Fig. 10d).

As described above, the demand for wood materials necessary for rosewood furniture, which supports China's unique furniture culture, is expected to continue for many years to come. On the other hand, as natural resources are depleted, other species of wood may gradually replace rosewood in the furniture business in the future. Needless to say, the use of wood must be promoted in harmony with the preservation of the global environment. With this in mind, it is hoped that a variety of studies will be conducted simultaneously to support efforts to protect trees and timbers regulated by CITES.


4.  References

  1)   Kanehira, R. 1921. Anatomical characters and identification of Formosan woods, with critical remarks from the climatic point of view with 300 micrographs. Bureau of Productive Industries Government of Formosa Taihoku, 317 p., Plates L (50).

  2)   Tang Y. 1932. Anatomical studies and identification of Chinese softwoods, timber studies of Chinese trees Ⅱ. Fan Memorial Bulletin Vol. Ⅲ, No. 13, pp. 157-161.

  3)   Tang Y. 1933. Anatomical studies and identification of Chinese softwoods I. Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology volume Ⅳ, Number 7, Published by the Institute, Peiping, China. (唐耀, 中國裸子植物各属木材之研究, 静生生物調査所彙報 第四巻, 第七號, 北平静生生物調査所刊行, 1933).

  4)   Tang Y. 1934. Research on imported wood. Journal of Chinese Botany, volume I, Number 2, Botanical Society of China, 199 p. (唐耀, 輸入外材之研究, 载中国植物学杂志, 第一巻第二期, 中國植物學會刊行, 199 p, 1934).

  5)   Tang Y. 1936. Chinese wood science. The Commercial Press, 1-680, Plates No.1-37 (75 P.). (唐耀, 中國木材學, 商務印書館, 1-680, 図版第一~第三十七(75 p.), 1936).

  6)   Wu S., Lee C. 1988. Comparative anatomical studies on the vessel elements of eight genera in magnoliaceae (吴树明,李正理, 八属木兰科植物木材导管分子的比较解剖), Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, No.1 :33-39,127-128.

  7)   Li Y. H. 1948. Anatomical study of the wood of “shui-sha”, Metasequoia glyptostroboides newly discovered tree in Wan County. Hu et Cheng, Research Institute of Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Research Bulletin, Number 5. (李扬汉, 萬縣新發 現之水杉木材之解剖, 農林部中央林業実験所 研究專刊 第五號, 民國三十七, 1948).

  8)   Liang H., Chow K. Y. & Au C. N. 1948. Properties of A "Living- fossile" Wood, Forestry Institute, National Central University, Research Bulletin, Number 1. (梁希, 周光荣,区炽南,“活化石”木材的性质,国立中央大学森林学研究所研究报告,木材工艺学第一号,民国三十七年, 1948).

  9)   Liang S., Ou C., Zhang J. 1951. Research on domestic conifer wood, Section of Utilization. Forest faculty, Nanjing University. (梁世镇, 区炽南, 张景良, 国产针叶树材构造之研究, 南京大学森林系利用组, 1951).

 10)   Liang S. 1952. Microstructure of 175 wood species in western Sichuan province. Nanjing Forestry University. (梁世镇, 川西175种木材細微构造, 南京林业大學, P. 40 p., 1952).

 11)   Cheng J. Q. and Wei G. Y. 1957. Key notes and description of anatomical features of softwoods. Acta Botanica Sinica, Vol.4, No.1. (成俊卿, 卫广扬, 针叶树材解剖性质的记载要点和说明, 植物学报, 第四巻, 第一號, 1957).

 12)   Huang D. 1964. Atlas of commercial wood in northeast China. Science Press, 1-226 p., Plates I-LXXII (72). (黄达璋, 东北经济木材志, 科学出版社, 1-226 p, 図版I-LXXII (72), 1964).

 13)   Tang Y. 1973. Tropical and subtropical wood in Yunnan. Science Press, 296 p., Plates 1-79. (唐耀., 云南热带材及亚热带材, 科学出版社, 296 p,, 図版1-79, 1973).

 14)   Cheng J. 1980. Chinese tropical and subtropical wood. Science Press, 592 p. (成俊卿, 中国热带及亚热带木材, 科学出版社, 592 p., 1980).

 15)   Tang Y. 1982. Anatomical basis of wood. Yunnan Forestry Institute, 156 p. (唐耀, 木材解剖学基础, 云南林学院, 156 p., 1982).

 16)   Cheng J. 1985. Wood Science. China Forestry Publishing House. (成俊卿, 木材学, 中国林业出版社, 1985).

 17)   Cheng J., Cai, S. 1982. Wood identification and utilization. China Forestry Publishing House, 140 p., Plates 1-27. (成俊卿, 蔡少松, 木材识别与利用, 中国林业出版社, 140 p., 图版1-27, 1982).

 18)   Wang B. Q. 1983. Wood identification. Shanxi Science and Technology Press, 124 p. (汪秉全, 木材识别, 陕西科学技术出版社, 124 P., 1983).

 19)   Liu S. L., Fang W. B., Huang L. Y., et al. 1983. The structure and properties of Cathaya argyrophylla wood. Hunan Science and Technology Press, 94 p., Picture Plates 1-182. (刘松龄, 方文彬, 黄玲英等, 银杉木材构造和性质, 湖南科学技术出版社, 94 p., 图版1-182, 1983).

 20)   Gong Y., Wang, W. 1985. Identification manual of common wood. Jiangsu Science Press, 493 p., Plates 1-69. (龚耀乾,王婉华, 常用木材识别手册, 江蘇科学技术出版社, 493 p., 図版1-69, 1985).

 21)   Luo W., Wang B. 1985. Identification and utilization of Guizhou wood. Guizhou People’s Press 449 p., Picture Plates 1-34. (罗文吉, 王邦林, 贵州木材识别与利用, 贵州人民出版社, 449 p., 图版1-34, 1985).

 22)   He T. X.1985. Identification of south China hardwoods. China Forestry Publishing House, 389 p. (何天相, 华南阔叶树木材识别, 中国林业出版社, 389 p., 1985.

 23)   Wei G. 1988. Identification manual of southeast Asian wood. Anhui Science Press, 308 p., Plates 1-28. (卫广扬, 东南亚木材―识别及用途, 安徽科学技术出版社, P. 308 p., 图版1-28, 1988).

 24)   Xu Z., Lin D., Zhao F. 1988. The identification and uses of wood in Fujian, Fujian Science Publishing House, 411 p. (许增辉, 林大家, 赵发桐, 福建木材识别与用途, 福建科学技术出版社, 411p, 1988).

 25)   Zhang J., Wu D., Zou S., Liu J. 1989. Wood atlas in Xishuangbanna (1). China Forestry Publishing House, 1-140 p., Plates 1-38. (张景良, 吴达期, 邹寿青, 刘建华, 西双版纳主要木材(一), 中国林业出版社, 1-184 , 图版1-38, 1989)

 26)   Xie F., Xu F., Zhu J., Li C. 1990. The identification, properties and uses of wood. Publishing House of Academic Publications, 650 p. (谢福惠, 徐峰, 祝俊新, 李重九, 木材树种识别, 材性及用途, 学术书刊出版社, 650p, 1990).

 27)   Luo L. 1989. Atlas of commercial wood in Yunnan. Yunnan People’s Press, 1-452 p., Picture Plates 1-124. (罗良才, 云南经济木材志, 云南人民出版社, 1-452, 图版1-124, 1989).

 28)   Baas P., Zhang X. 1986. Wood anatomy of trees and shrubs from China. I. Oleaceae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 7: pp. 195-220.

 29)   Deng L., Baas P. 1990. Wood anatomy of trees and shrubs from China II. Theaceae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 11: 337-378.

 30)   Zhang S., Baas P. 1992. Wood anatomy of trees and shrubs from China. III. Rosaceae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 13: 21-92.

 31)   Zhong Y. Baas P. Wheeler A. E. 1992. Wood anatomy of trees and shrubs from China. IV. Ulmaceae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 13: 419-453.

 32)   Cheng J., Yang J., Liu P. 1992. Wood atlas in China. China Forestry Publishing House. (成俊卿, 杨家驹, 刘鹏, 中国木材志, 中国林业出版社, 1992).

 33)   Dong Z., Baas P. 1993. Wood anatomy of trees and shrubs from China. V. Anacardiaceae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 14: 87-102.

 34)   Chen B., Baas P., Wheeler A. E., Wu S. 1993. Wood anatomy of trees and shrubs from China. VI. Magnoliaceae. IAWA Bull. n.s. 14: 391-412.

 35)   Liu P., Yang J., Lu H. 1993. Southeast Asian tropical timber. China Forestry Publishing House, 331 p., Plates 1-103. (刘鹏, 杨家驹, 卢鸿俊, 东南亚热带木材, 中国林业出版社, 331 p., 图版1-103, 1993).

 36)   Ke B., Ke S., Ke D., Ma Z. 1995. Wood atlas of Zhongtiao Mountain in Shanxi. Science Press, 322 p., Plates 1-110. (柯病凡, 柯曙华, 柯洞凡, 马志强, 山西中条山木材志, 科学出版社 322 p., 图片1-110, 1995).

 37)   Liu P , Jiang X., Zhang L. 1996. African tropical timber. China Forestry Publishing House, 1-347 p., Plates 1-103. (刘鹏, 姜笑梅, 张立菲, 非州热带木材, 中国林业出版社, 1-347 p., 图版1-103, 1996).

 38)   Jiang X., Zhang L., Liu P. 1999. Latin American tropical timber. China Forestry Publishing House, 1-333 p., Plates 1-104. (姜笑梅, 张立菲, 刘鹏, 拉丁美洲热带木材, 中国林业出版社, 1-333 p., 图版1-104, 1999).

 39)   Ye, R., Mo, S., Zou S., Shou, Q. 1999. Wood atlas of broad-leaved trees in Yunnan, Yunnan University Publishing House, Vol. I (1-100 p. ), Vol. II (101-200 p. ), Vol. Ⅲ (201-304 p. ). (叶如欣, 莫树门, 邹寿青, 中国云南闊叶树及木材图鉴, 云南大学出版, 第一冊 (pp. 1-100), 第二冊 (pp. 101-200), 第三冊 (pp. 201-304), 1999).

 40)   Liu Y., Yu H., liu Y. 2004. The manual of wood properties and uses in northeast China. Chemical Industrial Press, 346 p. (刘一星, 于海鹏, 迎涛, 中国东北地区木材性質与用途手册, 化学工业出版社, 346 p., 2004).

 41)   Zhou Y., Jiang X. 1994. Wood anatomy and ultrastructure of gymnospermous woods in China. China Forestry Publishing House. (周崟,姜笑梅. 中国裸子植物材的木材解剖学及超微结构,中国林业出版社,632 P., 1994).

 42)   Wu S, 1995. Wood Anatomy Research, International Academic Publishers.

 43)   National standard of rosewood in China. China Standards Press, 34 p., 2000. (中华人民共和国国家标准「紅木」, 中国标准出版社, 34 p., 2000).

 44)   National standard of rosewood in China. China Standards Press, 65 p., 2017. (中华人民共和国国家标准「紅木」, 中国标准出版社, 65 p., 2017).

 45)   Xu F. 2008. Wood Identification Atlas. Chemical Industrial Press, 416 p. (徐峰, 木材鉴定图譜, 化学工业出版社, 416 p., 2008).

 46)   Wang M., Ye K., Jiang X., Lu B. 2010. Wood identification manual. China Forestry Publishing House, 252 p. (王满, 叶克林, 姜笑梅, 吕斌, 常用实木鉴别手册, 中国林业出版社, 252 p., 2010).

 47)   Guo X., Ran J. 2004. Macro graphic atlas of imported wood. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 250 p. (郭喜良, 冉俊祥, 进口木材原色图鉴, 上海科学技术出版社, 250 p., 2004).

 48)   Jiang Z. H., Peng Z. H. 2001. Wood properties of the major tree species in the world. Science Press, 390 p., Plates 1-203. (江泽慧,彭镇华,世界主要树种木材科学特性,科学出版社,390 p., 图版1-203, 2001).

 49)   Pan B., Jiang J., Fang C. 2020. The atlas and identification of valuable timber in the world. China Forestry Publishing House, 248 p. (潘彪, 蒋劲东, 方崇荣, 世界名贵木材鉴别图鉴, 中国林业出版社, 248p, 2020).

 50)   Jiang X., Cheng Y., Yin Y. 2010. Wood atlas of gymnosperms in China. Science Press, 490 p. (姜笑梅, 程业明, 殷亚方, 中国裸子植物木材志, 科学出版社, 490 p., 2010).

 51)   Yin Y., Jiang X. et al. 2015. Identification guide for endangered and precious tropical timber. Science Press, 171 p. (殷亚方, 姜笑梅等, 濒危和珍贵热带木材识别图鉴, 科学出版社, 171 p., 2015).

(We have cited the main publications on wood anatomy published in China, but may have missed some relevant publications, and apologize for not citing them.)

Takao ITOH and Biao PAN

IV. Instructions for database search

To run this database, please have the database web site (URL), Account ID, and password provided by the publisher.

1. Access to the database

Start by opening (clicking) one of the four icons shown in Fig. 11.

Figure 11.  Recommended web browsers.

Paste the URL (providing by Kaiseisha Press) of the database into the address bar (red frame in Fig. 12) and click on it.

Figure 12.  The address bar.

The “LOGIN” page will be displayed (Fig. 13).

Figure 13.  The “LOGIN” page.

Enter the “Account ID” and “Password” information (providing by Kaiseisha Press) in the “LOGIN”page, and click on “login”. The homepage of the database will be displayed on the screen (Fig. 14).

Figure 14.  Homepage of the database.

2. Screens & menus

2-1. Home:

The homepage shows four menus, “Home”, “Contents”, “List”, “Search” and one switch in the menu bar (dotted square in Fig. 14). The functions of these four menus are described in turn.

Notes: As a hidden menu, clicking on the menu button to the left of "Home" brings up the entire menu, from which all menu items can be accessed.

2-2. Contents:

Moving the cursor to “Contents” in the homepage shows the following sub-menus.

Any sub-menu can be opened by clicking on it.

2-3. List:

Moving the cursor to “List” in the homepage shows the following sub-menus.

Any sub-menu can be opened by clicking on it and a list of wood species will appear. Any species (or scientific name) can be selected by scrolling and clicking on it.

Scientific names in the sub-menu can be presented in four different orders, depending on the combination of the two entries for each of “Arrangement” and “Scientific name” in dotted square located under the menu bar (Fig. 15). In practice, user has to choose either “Alphabet for family & species” or “Phylogeny” from the “Arrangement”, and either “APG IV” or “Flora of China” from the “Scientific name” by clicking on the small circle in front of each entry. Then, any order of species names will be displayed on the screen. For example, in the combination of “Alphabet for family & species” and “APG Ⅳ”, all species will be displayed in alphabetical order of family and genus names accepted in APG Ⅳ classification on the screen, while in the combination of “Phylogeny”, and “APG Ⅳ”, all species will be displayed in phylogenetic order of families and genera accepted in APG Ⅳ classification on the screen. These procedures are common to the three sub-menus.

Figure 15. A part of the list

When the users click on one of the three sub-menus, a list of all species, softwood species or hardwood species appears. Individual species names will be displayed in the following order: gymnosperm or angiosperm, family name, and the scientific name of a species. Figure 15 is an example of the list when choosing “Alphabet” from “Arrangement” and “APGⅣ” from “Scientific name". When clicking scientific name of some species, the file including the microscopic features, a distribution map, a macro photo (or stereomicroscopic image), and nine optical microscope images of some species, is displayed on the screen (Fig. 16a). As for the description of the microscopic features in hardwood, a heading including the scientific name, its synonyms, Chinese name and pinyin, followed by “General”, “Growth rings”, “Vessels”, “Tracheids and fibres”, “Axial parenchyma”, “Rays”, “Intercellular canals” (or “Tubes/tubules” or “Cambial variants”), “Uses”, “IAWA codes” and “Source of wood specimens” appear on the screen in order. Several functional keys can be viewed on the menu bar in Fig. 16a (or red square in Fig. 16b). Clicking on “Hide descriptions” in the square, the screen switches to nine pairs of optical microscope images. At the same time, “Hide descriptions” on the menu bar switches to “Show descriptions”. Clicking on the “<” or “>” signs in the menu bar, the screen switches to the previous or next pages. When clicking on the “Return to list” in the menu bar, the screen switches to a list of all species, softwood species or hardwood species.

If necessary, two or more microscopic images or descriptions will be displayed on the screen at the same time by cricking on an icon, “opens in new window button 2”. Therefore, microscopic images or descriptions of different species can be compared easily and quickly for finding some differences of their microscopic features.

In general, users can find descriptions, distribution maps or microscope images quickly by scrolling up and down on the screen. If users want to look at enlarged microscopic images, they have to move a cursor over the individual image and click on it, then the image will be enlarged. Further, the image will be enlarged more by turning the mouse wheel. Whenever the image is enlarged, further additional image manipulation marks (toolbar) appear below the image. The explanations of the function are omitted, but users can click on the individual marks to see how they work.

Figure 16a. A screen showing the plate of Abies chensiensis.

Figure 16b. A menu bar.

2-4. Search:

Moving the cursor to “Search” in the homepage shows the following sub-menus.

Any sub-menu can be opened by clicking on it.

3.  Search menus & protocols

3-1. Names

Clicking on “Names” will display the screen of “search by names” (Fig. 17).

Any one of the following three names can be used for searching wood species.

Prior to searching by any one of three sub-menus, the user needs to choose “Flora of China” or “APG” by clicking the small circle in front of either one of the classifications (red dotted ellipse in Fig. 17).

As shown in Table 4 in Chapter I, the old family names have been replaced by new family names in the updated family-level classification. Therefore, if you select "APG", you will be able to search for trees belonging to the new family name, but not those belonging to the old family name, and the message "no record found" will appear. Conversely, selecting "Flora of China" will produce the opposite result: trees belonging to the new family name will not be searched and "no record found" will be displayed.

Figure 17. Screen of “Search by names”.

Family name

Move a cursor to a long and blank rectangle to the right of the “family name” and click on it. Then, all family names listed in this database will appear in alphabetical order (Fig. 18). Moving a cursor on the family name that users want to search, and click on it, the family name that you have chosen will appear in the rectangle. Click on the “search” button, then a list of all genera and species belonging to the selected family will be displayed on the screen (Fig. 19a, showing an example of Betulaceae). Microscopic features of any species in the list will be displayed on the screen by clicking on the scientific name or on the icon (open in new window button 2).

If the users wish to continue to view the information of another species in the list, they can move the cursor to the “back to search page” button (red dotted square in Fig. 19b) under the menu bar and click on it to return to the original list screen. Then, select other species again after clicking on "Reset" button.

Figure 18. Display of family names.

Figure 19a. An example of Betulaceae.

Figure 19b. “back to search page” button.

Species name

Move a cursor to a long and blank rectangle to the right of “species name” and click on it. Then, all species (scientific) names including synonym listed in this database will appear in alphabetical order. Move a cursor on the species (scientific) name that users want by scrolling and click on it, the candidate species name will appear in the rectangle. Click on the “search” button, then the microscopic features and images of the candidate species will be displayed on the screen. To magnify an individual microscope image, move the cursor over the individual image, clicks, and turns the mouse wheel. Whenever the image is enlarged, further additional image processing marks (toolbar) are displayed below the image (Fig. 20). The function of the image processing marks are not explained here, but you can click on the individual marks to see how they work.

Figure 20. Showing image processing toolbar.

If users want to look at anatomical descriptions, distribution maps or macro photos after viewing the microscope images, move the cursor over the “show descriptions” on the menu bar and click to switch screens.

If the users want to search other species, move the cursor over the “Return to search page” on the menu bar (square in Fig. 16a & 16b) and click it, the screen will return to search page. Then, click on the “reset” button to reset the species name left in the blank square of species field and start the search of other species again.

Notes: Instead of following the above procedure, enter some genus name in the blank rectangle to the right of the “Species name” and click the “Search” button. A list of all species belonging to that genus will be displayed. The icon, “open in new window button 2” function allows us to quickly compare microscopic features and images of all species in the genus.

Vernacular name

Move a cursor to the blank rectangle to the right of “vernacular name” and click on it. Then, all vernacular name in this database will appear in alphabetical order of pinyin with Chinese characters. Moving a cursor to a pinyin with its Chinese character that users want by scrolling and click on it. The candidate pinyin with its Chinese character will appear in the rectangle. Click the “search” button, then, the microscopic features of the candidate species will be displayed on the screen.

For the rest of the search, please refer to the search method by “species name”.

3-2. IAWA Softwood codes & IAWA Hardwood codes

These two sub-menus are constructed for identifying wood species by narrowing down the candidate species from all species listed in this database. Prior to searching IAWA codes, users need to select a number (from 0 to 5) of mismatches allowed by clicking “mismatches allowed” button (ellipse in Fig. 21). The probability of a successful search will be increased by selecting a high confidence microscopic features (or IAWA codes).

By clicking on “IAWA softwood codes” (or “IAWA hardwood codes”), “the IAWA softwood (or hardwood) list will be displayed on the screen (Fig. 21). Microscopic features (or IAWA codes) obtained after examination of microscopic slides prepared from some unknown wood specimen can be determined by selecting “+” or “−” (“present” or “absent”) that appears successively by clicking the empty square in front of each IAWA code. After detecting other reliable microscopic features (or IAWA codes) as much as possible and clicking the “search” button on the top of the screen, a list of candidate species will be displayed on the screen. Microscopic features of some selected species can then be viewed by clicking on their scientific name.

Notes: When the search of microscopic features in an unknown sample is unsuccessful, “no record found” appears on the screen. In such a case, it is recommended not to select too many codes and to avoid codes corresponding to ambiguous features. Instead, only reliable microscopic features (or IAWA codes) should be used in the search to narrow down the candidate species and continue the search for candidate species using other reliable IAWA codes. Once the candidate species have been narrowed down, a detailed comparison of the microscopic slides of unknown specimen and the reference microscopic slides of the candidate species should be made using optical microscopy. Therefore, it is always recommended that a reference microscopic slide or specimen be used to validate the results of user’s database search.

Figure 21. Showing 'IAWA List of softwood codes'.

The search options in this database of Chinese Woods, offers basically the same options for wood identification as the Inside Wood Database (1). Useful advices on which search strategies to adopt for identification various sorts of unknowns and which pitfalls to avoid, are given in Wheeler et al. (2).

4. References

  1)   Wheeler, E.A. 2011. Inside Wood – a web resource for wood anatomy. IAWA J. 32: 199-211.

  2)   Wheeler, E.A., Gasson, P.E. and Baas, P. 2020. Using the InsideWood web site: Potentials and pitfalls. IAWA J. 41: 412-462.

Takao ITOH and Masato FUKUI

Author's and contributor's affiliation

Editor-in-Chief & Author

Takao ITOH  Emeritus Professor, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Associate Editor & Author

Biao PAN  Professor, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China

Yuzou SANO  Professor, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Guest Editor

Pieter BAAS  Emeritus Professor, Leiden University and Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands


Jiayan LUO  Associate Professor, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China

Dagang LI  Professor, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China

Yongzhi CUI  Prior Associate Professor, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China


Feng WANG  Phd student of Biology, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Québec, Canada

Mechtild MERTZ  Researcher, East Asian Civilisations Research Centre (CRCAO-CNRS), Paris, France

Tomoyuki FUJII  Fellow, the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan

Yoshitsugu YASUMOTO  Prior Expert, Asahi Woodtec Corporation, Osaka, Japan

Bei LUO  Associate Professor, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China

About citation

     If you want to cite this database and atlas, please specity " Itoh T. et al. (2022 onwards). Anatomical Database and Atlas of Chinese Woods (https://www.kaiseisha-press.ne.jp/cnwood/)".

Version history

20 June 2022: Version 1

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Copyright © 2022 by Takao ITOH, Biao PAN, Yuzou SANO, Pieter BAAS, Jiayan LUO, Dagang LI, and Yongzhi CUI

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Home Contents
   I. Construction of the database    II. Construction of tree distribution maps in China    III. Progress of wood anatomy research in China    IV. Instructions for database search List