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Wood and Traditional Woodworking in Japan 〔Second Edition〕
kyotojournalウェブサイト,2014/1/27確認 Kyoto JournalのウェブサイトにDouglas Woodruff氏による書評が掲載されました。
Foreword by Yumoto Takakazu (Prof. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature) Foreword by Itoh Takao (Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University) Preface to the second edition Acknowledgements Notes on typography, Chronological table, Prefectures and regions of Japan INTRODUCTION 1. WOOD BASICS 1.1. Nomenclature of Trees and Timbers 1.1.1. Botanical names 1.1.2. Vernacular names 1.1.3. Timber names 1.2. Wood Structure 1.2.1. Gross structure of the tree 1.2.2. Structure of the stem 1.2.3. Microscopic structure of wood 1.3. Wood Sections 1.3.1. Transversal section 1.3.2. Tangential section 1.3.3. Radial section 1.3.4. Wood figuring 1.4. Wood Surface 1.4.1. Grain 1.4.2. Texture 1.4.3. Colour 1.5. Wood Properties 1.5.1. Density 1.5.2. Average shrinkage 1.5.3. Seasoning 1.5.4. Durability 1.5.5. Cleavability 2. TRADITIONAL WOODWORKING IN JAPAN 2.1. Sashimono, Fine Cabinetmaking/Joinery 2.2. Horimono/chokoku, Carving/sculpture 2.3. Hikimono, Turning 2.4. Magemono, Bentwork 2.5. Daiku, Carpentry 3. WOODWORKERS AND WOOD NOMENCLATURE 3.1. Japanese Timber Names 3.1.1. Wood names with an area-related prefix 3.1.2. Wood names with a characteristic-related prefix 3.1.3. Wood names with an age-related prefix 3.1.4. Abbreviated wood names 3.1.5. Wood names with prefixes denoting foreign wood 3.2. Tree and Timber Group Names 3.2.1. Grouping of trees a. Zoki/zatsuboku, common or miscellaneous trees b. Kiso go-boku, "Five trees of Kiso" c. Sacred trees 3.2.2. Timber groupings a. Softwoods and hardwoods b. Meiboku, superior-quality wood c. Bogwood d. Wood for Buddhist images e. Karaki, Chinawood, and Japanese wood f. Akamono, red wood 3.3. Timber Classifications Used by Craftsmen 4. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF TRADITIONAL WOODWORKING 4.1. The Choice of Timber 4.2. Seasoning Wood 4.3. Kidori, Object-Oriented Cutting 5. CULTURAL ASPECTS OF TRADITIONAL WOODWORKING 5.1. Preference for Indigenous Wood 5.1.1. Earlywood and latewood 5.1.2. Aesthetic aspects of Japanese and foreign wood 5.1.3. Chinawood in Japan 5.1.4. A different approach to indigenous wood 5.2. Sacred Aspects of Wood 5.2.1. Felling a tree 5.2.2. Timber for a Buddhist or Shinto image 5.2.3. "First strike of the chisel" ritual 5.2.4. The "soul" of an image 5.2.5. Objects created for shrines and temples 5.2.6. Construction ceremonies 5.3. Symbolic Associations 5.3.1. The Shoso-in as a source of inspiration 5.3.2. Taking inspiration from Katsura rikyu 5.3.3. The "Genpei War" example 6. AESTHETIC ASPECTS OF TRADITIONAL WOODWORKING 6.1. A Comprehensive and Broad Perception of the Beauty of Wood 6.1.1. Grain and figuring 6.1.2. Colours 6.1.3. Texture and weight 6.2. Techniques for Enhancing the Beauty of Wood 6.2.1. Final carving techniques 6.2.2. Finishing and coating techniques 6.3. The Quiet Beauty of Wood in the Tea Ceremony 6.4. Beauty and Beyond CONCLUDING REMARKS Bibliography Appendices Appendix 1 Names, Sizes, and Distributions of Japanese Timber, Trees, and Plants Appendix 2 Scientific Names of Tree and Plant Species Mentioned in the Text Appendix 3 Physical and Manufacturing Properties Glossary of Wood and Woodworking Index
Japan is known to be a country of wood and "wood culture". Written sources on the practical aspect of traditional woodcraft, however, are scarce. For this reason it was decided to undertake a study based on in-depth interviews of craftsmen who are specialised in various fields of traditional woodworking. From the data thus obtained it was possible to study the materials used, the techniques, the nomenclature, the aesthetics and the culture prevailing in the various fields of woodcraft.
As a result both the technical and the symbolic and aesthetic properties of wood and woodworking become apparent, as seen from the point of view of Japanese craftsmen who owe their skill and expertise to traditions passed from one generation to the next. As such, this study contributes towards opening a new field of research for art historians, ethnobotanists, archaeologists and japanologists by supplying them with new means and tools to supplement their own.
Apart from that, the present study, focusing on wood in all its aspects as it does, ties in with an academic trend that has been developing in Japan over the past few decades.